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Gurzil Dispels the Darkness

Subject: Religion

(Libya) Gurzil, the sun god, was worshiped among the Huwwara of Tripolitania well into the eleventh century, long after the Arab conquest. This deity was a protector, a guide, ...

marginalism

marginalism  

Reference type:
Overview Page
The technique of studying economic change by examining any small rate of change of any one variable (e.g. cost, revenue, consumer satisfaction) relative to another. Analytically powerful because it ...
marginalism

marginalism   Quick reference

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
186 words

...satisfaction) relative to another. Analytically powerful because it enables the rules of calculus to be directly applied to economic reasoning. Marginalism was imported into political thinking by economists who turned to politics. The benefit of marginalist thought is that it can dispel common fallacies, for instance ‘We have spent £ K (where K is a large number) on Concorde so far and have got nothing to show for it; therefore we should spend the further £ K ? (where K ? is a slightly smaller number) needed to complete the development, so as not to waste...

League of Nations

League of Nations   Quick reference

David Carlton

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
460 words

...through a system of so‐called collective security . False hopes were thus raised in many quarters that all aggressors henceforth would be deterred or effectively punished by the leading states in the League’s establishment. During the 1930s this illusion was dramatically dispelled. Analysts have differed ever since as to whether such a system of collective security would in all circumstances have proved unworkable or whether the failure was due in the particular case to so few great powers being loyal members. At all events, when in 1931 Japan invaded...

Africa, Portuguese-speaking

Africa, Portuguese-speaking   Reference library

Luis B. Serapiao

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
903 words

...legal constraints, corruption, administrative barriers, poor labor productivity, public-administration inefficiencies, weak legal and judiciary systems, inadequate infrastructure, lack of finance, small-market challenges, smuggling, and theft. To the extent Mozambique can dispel these impediments, its economy could grow even more significantly. This short work would not be complete without mentioning President Chissano's attempt, within his framework of economic reform, to reduce absolute poverty within the country. In the early 1990s, Chissano ordered a...

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,347 words

...government. Globalization, the future expansion of NAFTA , and the possible normalization of U.S. relations with Cuba may erode the relative advantage of Puerto Rico's commonwealth status. It is argued that only statehood will provide the permanent political stability and dispel the uncertainties and risks of the island's present colonial status. Although in the 1996 elections, the pro statehood PNP, led by Roselló, became a majority party by capturing 51.1 percent of the electorate, nationalist sentiment has increased as a result of the U.S. Navy...

Britain–Australia

Britain–Australia   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,925 words

...until the 1990s did the Australian Labor Party (‐ see ALP ) make an issue of republicanism . Indeed, Malcolm Fraser was probably correct to advise a London audience in 1977 that they ‘not pay too much heed to stories about republicanism in Australia’. Fraser did much to dispel Britishness to the backblocks of Australian political culture. Putting flesh on the multicultural bones meant dismembering the old British corpse of ‘white Australia’ and ending what he termed the ‘days of Anglo-Saxon conformity’. Multiculturalism quickly and quietly relegated...

Aboriginal politics (historical)

Aboriginal politics (historical)   Reference library

Oxford Companion to Australian Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,736 words

...to Marcus Garvey's Universal Negro Improvement Association's motto went unnoticed by historians until very recently, when research by Indigenous historian John Maynard (grandson of Fred Maynard ) revealed the extent of Garvey's influence on the AAPA. This new research dispels the long‐held misconception that the early Aboriginal political movement was both unsophisticated and Christian– (or white–) influenced. The AAPA was to be a significant influence on the ideas and activities of the next generation of activists and organisations that emerged in...

World Bank

World Bank   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,721 words

...the Bank later moved closer to center stage, the nature of its role was defined mainly by the U.S. Treasury Department. From the strenuous defense of creditors' claims to the cautious provision of guarantees on repayment of restructured debt, its words and actions did nothing to dispel suspicions that it was a handmaiden of private bankers. Yet the supertanker does change course, often in ways that are mystifying to those of its own crew and those of other vessels. World Bank watchers usually point to hegemonic pressures to account for changes in the...

Nationalism in African Politics

Nationalism in African Politics   Reference library

Sara Rich Dorman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
8,468 words

...reflect the presence of new political elites, seeking to write their own contributions and histories into the cultural backdrop, by introducing a new national flag as President Mutharika controversially did in Malawi in 2010 , or by attempts to build new political coalitions and dispel ethnic animosity, as in Kenya before and, especially, after the 2007 elections ( Branch, 2010 ; Scharrer, 2018 ). But attempts to redefine the nation also come from the bottom-up, as artists, actors, musicians, journalists and writers use their artistic mediums to challenge...

The International Criminal Court in Africa and the Politics of International Justice

The International Criminal Court in Africa and the Politics of International Justice   Reference library

Phil Clark

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2020
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
12,952 words

...of the Court as one-sided and heavily politicized. A common view among community leaders and members of the political opposition in Kampala and northern Uganda is that, as one politician argued, “the ICC has become Museveni’s political tool.” 18 The OTP has so far failed to dispel this perception. Local and international human rights groups have reported regular atrocities by the UPDF in northern Uganda, including the forced displacement of around 1.8 million people into internally displaced persons (IDP) camps. A 2007 qualitative study conducted by the...

Common Sense

Common Sense   Reference library

Willi Paul Adams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
359 words

...was published in February by the Philadelphia printers Melchior Steiner and Carl Cist . This wide distribution, together with newspaper excerpts, made Common Sense the single most influential pamphlet of the Revolutionary War. In rousing agitator’s rhetoric, Paine dispelled as a myth the “balanced,” liberty-protecting char- acter of the British constitution. Hereditary monarchy and aristocracy were absurd, Paine argued, and irreconcilable with the natural equality of human beings. The colonists could not seriously hope for a permanent...

primaries, Presidential

primaries, Presidential   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
961 words

...Republican primaries but could not derail the candidacy of Thomas Dewey. Entering primaries enabled candidates to dispel doubts about their electability and gain the support of political bosses who controlled a majority of the convention delegates. In 1960 John F. Kennedy won primaries in Wisconsin and West Virginia, demonstrating that a Catholic could do well with Protestant voters. In 1968 Richard Nixon won enough primaries to dispel his “loser” reputation. By 1968 primaries were held in 17 states, accounting for 37.5 percent of the Democratic and...

Nuclear Regulatory Commission

Nuclear Regulatory Commission   Reference library

J. Samuel Walker

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
466 words

...safety of nuclear power and other civilian applications of nuclear energy. The NRC, headed by five commissioners appointed by the president of United States , began operations in January 1975 . Most of its staff members were holdovers from the AEC, but the new agency hoped to dispel the widespread public suspicion of the AEC by demonstrating its toughness as a regulator. This proved difficult, if not impossible. As the public debate over nuclear power safety raged on, former critics of the AEC were not inclined to regard the NRC more charitably. The NRC’s...

Miranda v. Arizona

Miranda v. Arizona   Reference library

Yale Kamisar

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
619 words

...has been arrested. In the “interrogation environment,” the Miranda majority concluded, a suspect typically assumed (erroneously) or was misled by the police into believing that he or she had to answer their questions. Thus, unless “adequate protective devices” were utilized to dispel the anxiety and coercion inherent in police interrogation, no statement obtained from a suspect could truly be the product of a free choice. The adequate protective devices set down by the Court (unless the government adopted other equally effective means) were the now-familiar ...

Kindī, Abū Yūsuf Yaʿqūb ibn Isḥaq al-

Kindī, Abū Yūsuf Yaʿqūb ibn Isḥaq al-   Reference library

Peter Adamson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
865 words

...that for al-Kindī the proper political arrangement consists in rule by a rational king, which is greeted by unquestioning obedience. For insight into the proper behavior of such a rational king, we can turn to al-Kindī's extant ethical writings. In a work entitled “On Dispelling Sorrows,” he first sets out the basic ethical principle that one should disdain the goods of the physical world and turn towards the “world of the intellect.” He then gives a series of anecdotes, sayings, and bits of advice intended to help us achieve this. Several of these...

Jones Act (1917)

Jones Act (1917)   Reference library

Efrén Rivera Ramos

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in Contemporary Politics, Law, and Social Movements

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law
Length:
1,171 words

...to run for public office. Under those conditions, only a few hundred persons decided not to become US citizens. After the Jones Act was passed, some believed Puerto Rico was on its way to US statehood. In Balzac v. Porto Rico ( 1922 ) the Supreme Court of the United States dispelled that notion. The Court held that the granting of US citizenship had not changed the constitutional and political status of Puerto Rico. The island, the Court stated, remained an unincorporated territory of the United States. Lower federal courts have also found that US...

Ukraine

Ukraine   Reference library

Marta Dyczok

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,212 words

...Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler exterminated countless millions in Holodomor (artificial famine), the Gulag, two world wars, and more. When Ukraine appeared on the world map in 1991 , its first task was to establish itself as an independent actor on the international scene, to dispel the perception that it was Russia's junior partner. This really happened only after 1994 , in large part because of the way that Ukraine played its nuclear card—it agreed to give up the weapons it inherited from the Soviet era (the only country in history to do so) but only in a...

Shuʿūbīyah

Shuʿūbīyah   Reference library

Racha el Omari

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,871 words

...in the way it looks at tafsīr (Qurʾānic exegesis) as a new source for the study of the Shuʿūbīyah movement, where locality, rather than lineage or language, emerges as a basic trait for the self-identification of the proponents of the Shuʿūbīyah. Furthermore, Mottahedeh dispels any lingering notion of the Shuʿūbīyah's historical connection to modern Iranian nationalism. Norris, H. T. “Shuʿūbīyah in Arabic Literature.” In ʿAbbasid Belles-Lettres , edited by Julia Ashtiany , pp. 32–47. Cambridge History of Arabic Literature 4. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge...

Jefferson, Thomas

Jefferson, Thomas   Reference library

Brian D. Steele

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
3,368 words

...of power & priestcraft.” Such effusion seems confirmed somewhat less by his own close victory over Adams (and over running mate Burr) than by the majorities the Republicans gained in Congress and by his overwhelming reelection in 1804 . His first inaugural address attempted to dispel the bitterness of the partisan struggle, encouraging his “fellow-citizens” to “unite with one heart and one mind” and suggesting that “every difference of opinion is not a difference of principle… We are all republicans, we are all federalists.” True Americans were both and thus...

Women, Gender, and Contemporary Armed Conflict

Women, Gender, and Contemporary Armed Conflict   Reference library

Megan MacKenzie

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,730 words

...as a gender-neutral term as well as representations of the post-conflict era as a time where men and women’s experiences are similar. Assessments of post-conflict reconstruction, rehabilitation, progress, and development have been deeply impacted by emerging research that dispels traditional assumptions about “women’s place” both during and after conflict. Emerging research depicting women’s involvement in conflict and sources of empowerment for women in conflict complicate the notions that the end of war and the transition to peace is attractive to...

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