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caryatid

A carved female figure, usually clad in long robes, serving as a column. They were first used in Greek architecture and the most famous caryatids are on the Erechtheum at Athens (c.421–406 ...

Caryatid

Caryatid   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
650 words
Illustration(s):
1

... . Sculpted female figure (equivalent to the male Atlantid ) used in place of a column. Caryatids first appeared in ancient Greek architecture around the mid-6th century bc ; they were also used in Roman architecture, and these models were revived in the 18th and 19th centuries. Classical caryatids are always clothed; they may be dressed in the Ionic style and may have either a polos or a high-sided crown on their heads, or a wider drum representing a basket containing sacred objects. When dressed in Doric costume, however, caryatids bear the capital...

caryatids

caryatids   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
98 words

... , column‐shafts carved in the form of draped women. Apparently named after Caryae in Laconia , where virgins danced to Artemis Caryatis . Of near‐eastern derivation, they appear in Greece c. 550 bc , and are popular on late Archaic treasuries at Delphi ; the most famous are those of the Athenian Erechtheum . The Erechtheum accounts, however, simply call them korai ; in this case, perhaps, they were civic versions of the private korē dedications of the past ( see art, funerary, greek ( Archaic period ) ). Copies of the Erechtheum caryatids...

caryatides

caryatides   Reference library

Andrew F. Stewart

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
214 words

... , a Greek term for column-shafts carved in the form of draped women; male equivalents were called Atlantides ( see atlas ). Apparently named after Caryae in Laconia , where virgins danced to Artemis Caryatis (Pratin. Lyr. 4; Paus. 3. 10. 7). Of near-eastern derivation (e.g. Tell Halaf), they appear in Greece around 550 bc , and are popular on late Archaic treasuries at Delphi ; the most famous are those of the Athenian Erechtheum . The Erechtheum accounts, however, simply call them korai ; in this case, perhaps, they were civic versions of...

caryă'tids

caryă'tids   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Classical Literature (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Classical studies
Length:
88 words

... ( karyātidĕs ) The Greek name for columns carved in the form of women in long drapery. They appear in Greece c. 550 bc . The most famous are the six which supported the roof of the small porch on the south-west corner of the Erechtheum , one of which is now in the British Museum. The derivation of the name is unknown; one suggestion is that it means ‘maidens of Caryae’, a place in Laconia, and it is perhaps connected with the girl dancers who performed there in honour of...

Pericles

Pericles  

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Overview Page
Early 4th-cent. bcdynast of Limyra (east Lycia). His name suggests imitation of Athenian culture. He defeated Artembares, ruler of Pinara and Tlos (Tituli Asiae Minoris 1. 67, 104) and ...
Erechtheum

Erechtheum  

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Overview Page
A marble temple of the Ionic order built on the Acropolis in Athens c. 421–406 bc, with shrines to Athene, Poseidon, and Erechtheus, a legendary king of Athens. A masterpiece of the Ionic order, it ...
forum Augustum

forum Augustum  

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Overview Page
Or dedicated in 2 bc, the vast precinct of Mars Ultor in Rome, vowed by Octavian at Philippi. The octastyle marble Corinthian temple stood on a lofty podium at the northern end; the interior of the ...
mirror

mirror  

All done with mirrors an apparent achievement with an element of trickery, alluding to explanations of the art of a conjuror.Mirror, mirror on the wall, Who is the fairest of them all? in the early ...
Atlantid

Atlantid   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
197 words

.... Male figure (sometimes known as telamon, and equivalent to the female caryatid) used to replace a column. It is usually represented standing with its hands behind its bowed head, as if supporting a heavy weight on its shoulders, and is probably modelled on the mythical Atlas, who was said to hold up the sky. Unlike caryatids, surviving examples from the Greco-Roman world are scarce. The earliest and most famous, in the huge temple of Zeus Olympios at Akragas (begun c. 480 bc ), are 7.65 m high and composed of 12 or 13 courses of stone. Several have...

Pericles

Pericles (2)   Reference library

Simon Hornblower

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
179 words

...and new inscriptions found at Limyra ( M. Wörrle , Chiron , 1991 , 203–39) do indeed show Pericles calling himself ruler of the Lycians, Λυκίων βασιλεύς; they also attest dealings between Pericles and a Lycian community called the Pernitai. A fine tomb, with Greek-style caryatids , may be his. By 337 Lycia was absorbed into the Hecatomnid Carian satrapy ( see pixodarus ). T. Bryce , Historia , 1980, 377 ff.; M. Wörrle (as above). Tomb: J. Borchhardt , Die Bauskulptur des Heroons von Limyra (1976); T. Marksteiner , Die befestigte Siedlung von...

Erechthēum

Erechthēum   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
260 words

...into four compartments: the largest (east cella) has an Ionic portico; the west end is closed by a wall with engaged columns and corner piers. At this end is a unique and boldly projecting (though small) south feature—the ‘porch of the maidens’, with draped female figures ( caryatids ) serving as supports—and, nearly opposite on the north side, a still more boldly projecting porch with Ionic columns standing on a lower level and having the tallest order of the whole composition. The temple replaced to some extent the large 6th‐cent. temple of Athena whose...

Mirror

Mirror   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,092 words
Illustration(s):
2

...In addition to various columnar and plant shapes forming the support, human figures in the round, known as caryatids, are used . The number of pieces joined to form the caryatid mirror varies from two units, the disc and the figure-base, to as many as fifteen. Female caryatids used as supports on mirrors may be either nude or semi-nude girls standing on an animal or simple round base or women garbed in chiton (tunics) or peplos (outer robes). Male caryatids (Atlantids), either nude or wrapped in a large cloak, are also employed as supports. By the late 5th...

forum Augustum

forum Augustum   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
195 words

...temple led from the Subura into the forum through triumphal arches , dedicated to Drusus ( see claudius drusus, nero ) and Germanicus in ad 19 . The forum area was flanked by Corinthian porticoes enriched with coloured marble, and crowned by a tall attic decorated with caryatids copied from the Erechtheum at Athens; behind these were large semicircular exedrae. Statues of Romulus and of Aeneas adorned the exedrae , while others representing the Julian family and Roman state heroes decorated the porticoes; laudatory inscriptions from the bases of...

forum Augustum or Augusti

forum Augustum or Augusti   Reference library

Ian Archibald Richmond, Donald Emrys Strong, and Janet DeLaine

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
255 words

...temple led from the Subura into the forum through triumphal arches , dedicated to Drusus ( see claudius drusus, nero ) and Germanicus in ad 19 . The forum area was flanked by Corinthian porticoes enriched with coloured marble, and crowned by a tall attic decorated with caryatides copied from the Erechtheum at Athens; behind these were large semicircular exedrae. Statues of Romulus and of Aeneas adorned the exedrae, while others representing the Julian family and Roman state heroes decorated the porticoes; laudatory inscriptions from the bases of...

mirrors

mirrors   Reference library

Glenys Lloyd-Morgan

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
491 words

...Greek hand-mirrors were made in one piece from the 7th cent. bc , becoming more elaborate with time. Mirrors of the 5th cent. bc include those with a heavy disc and a separate ornamental tang slotting into a handle or stand. The most elaborate examples are the so-called caryatid mirrors where the disc is supported by a female figure, rarely a youth, on a stool or plinth. The date-span covers the period c. 620– c. 400 bc . The other important group are the 4th–3rd-cent. bc mirrors with a hinged cover to protect the reflecting surface. The lid may be...

Eleusis

Eleusis   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
926 words
Illustration(s):
1

...2nd century ad ; Eleusis Mus.); a series of kernoi (unusual ritual vases; Eleusis Mus.); an exquisitely carved ram’s head from the gutter of the Peisistratid Telesterion (late 6th century bc , Eleusis Mus.); and the fine capitals and colossal caryatids from the Lesser Propylaia (Eleusis Mus.; one caryatid in Cambridge , Fitzwilliam). F. Noack : Eleusis, die baugeschichtliche Entwicklung des Heiligtumes (Berlin, 1927) G. E. Mylonas : Eleusis and the Eleusinian Mysteries (Princeton, 1962) D. G. Giraud : E kuria eisodos tou ierou tes Eleusinos ...

Sculpture, Architectural

Sculpture, Architectural   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
7,063 words

...celestial symbols. Caryatids. Often used in Roman architecture, caryatids became popular in the age of Augustus when copies of the Erechtheum caryatids were used to decorate the attic of the porticoes of the forum Augustum ( 10–2 bce ). Earlier, copies of the Erecththeum caryatids had been used to decorate the Lesser Propylaia at Eleusis ( c.50 bce ). Later they were used in Hadrian's Villa at Tivoli as part of the decoration of the Canopus (after 130 ce ). The success of the Erechtheum caryatids did not preclude the use of caryatids of a different type...

Erechtheum

Erechtheum   Reference library

Theodore Fyfe, Richard Ernest Wycherley, and Antony J. S. Spawforth

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
373 words

...'s trident, an altar of Poseidon and Erechtheus , and altars of Butes (1) and Hephaestus . Near the west end of the building were shrines of Cecrops and Pandrosus , and the original sacred olive of Athena. The Erechtheum was much admired in antiquity: the korai called Caryatids by the Romans were copied for the forum Augustum and Hadrian's villa at Tibur ; the Athenians faithfully replicated its details in their temple to Roma and Augustus. D. Harris , The Treasures of the Parthenon and Erechtheion (1995), ch. 6; J. M. Hurwit, The Acropolis in...

Tibur

Tibur   Reference library

Edward Togo Salmon and T. W. Potter

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
282 words

...was that of Hadrian , begun c. ad 118 on the site of a republican–Augustan villa. The largest ever built, it incorporates many exotic buildings which reflect those that Hadrian had seen in the east Mediterranean, such as the Canopus-Serapeum, lined with statuary including caryatids like those on the Erechtheum in Athens. Among other important and luxurious buildings were the Poecile, the island villa, the ‘Piazza d'Oro’, the baths, and a temple of Venus resembling that at Cnidus . G. C. Giuliani , Tibur 1 (1970); G. de Palma , in Enea (1981), 38...

Nike

Nike   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
495 words
Illustration(s):
1

... during a series of excavations conducted by Charles Champoiseau . The statue was taken to Paris , where it underwent restoration to replace the wings and parts of the drapery, which were found in fragments. It was first exhibited at the Musée du Louvre in the Salle des Caryatides. In 1866 another campaign of excavations was organized on the island, but this proved fruitless. Champoiseau himself returned to Samothrace in 1879 and found the fragments of a rostrate prow, which had served as the pedestal of the statue. The fragments were sent to ...

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