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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

basic rest–activity cycle

basic rest–activity cycle n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... restactivity cycle n. A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep . Also called the restactivity cycle . BRAC ...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...ended up affecting the book industry or the business of bookselling: for example, a protectionist national policy toward papermaking in Mexico resulted in higher production costs for books. In addition, the fall in oil prices, precipitating a financial crisis that led to cycles of hyperinflation, devaluation, and economic recession in most of the region during the 1980s actually reduced the population’s income, increased book production costs, and led to declining book sales. From 1984 to 1990 , for example, Argentina produced 18 per cent fewer...

chronobiology

chronobiology n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n. The branch of biology concerned with biological rhythms . See biological clock , biological rhythm . See also alpha wave , basic restactivity cycle , beta wave , circadian rhythm , circannual rhythm , delta wave , gamma wave , infradian rhythm , menstrual cycle , sensorimotor rhythm , sleep–wake cycle , suprachiasmatic nucleus , telomere , theta wave , ultradian rhythm , Zeitgeber . [From Greek chronos time + English biology...

biological rhythm

biological rhythm n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...rhythm n. Any periodic, more-or-less regular fluctuation or cycle in a biological system or process that is not wholly under the control of environmental cues but is controlled centrally by a biological clock . It may be an ultradian rhythm such as a circannual rhythm or a menstrual cycle ; a circadian rhythm such as the sleep–wake cycle ; or an infradian rhythm such as an alpha wave , basic restactivity cycle , beta wave , delta wave , gamma wave , sensorimotor rhythm , or theta wave . See also chronobiology , pacemaker...

infradian rhythm

infradian rhythm n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...rhythm n . Any biological rhythm with a period of less than a day. See alpha wave , basic restactivity cycle , beta wave , delta wave , gamma wave , sensorimotor rhythm , theta wave . See also biological clock , chronobiology , Zeitgeber . Compare circadian rhythm , circannual rhythm , ultradian rhythm . [From Latin infra under + dies a...

sleep

sleep n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...III, and IV NREM sleep respectively. See also basal forebrain , basic restactivity cycle , circadian rhythm , delta sleep-inducing peptide , delta wave , dream ( 1 ) , dyssomnias , hypnagogic image , hypnopompic image , K complex , locus coeruleus , magnocellular nucleus , melatonin , nucleus gigantocellularis , paradoxical sleep , parasomnias , PGO spike , pineal gland , polysomnography , pseudoinsomnia , REM atonia , REM rebound , sleep spindle , sleep–wake cycle , sleepwalking , slow-wave sleep , subcoerulear nucleus...

cyclicity

cyclicity   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Earth

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography
Length:
1,888 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and ‘greenhouse’ states. Second-order cycles may be driven by cycles of fast and slow mantle convection which regulate sea-floor spreading on a scale of 30 to 60 million years. Periods of Phanerozoic fast spreading are correlated with those of high magnetic field activity, which is also related to the vigour of mantle convection. When mantle activity is reduced, spreading is slower and there is a drop in sea level; magnetic polarity can be frequently reversed. There is much argument about the reality of these cycles, seemingly because they reveal an overall...

electrocardiogram

electrocardiogram   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
948 words
Illustration(s):
1

...‘peaks’ are labelled as P, QRS, and T (see figure). The most basic feature of the ECG is that the time from any one such ‘peak’ to the same one in the next cycle indicates precisely how long the heart cycle is taking. At slow rates, the timing of the waves can be easily correlated to the heart sounds heard with the stethoscope. But far more precise information can be gleaned once the relationship of the waves to the phases of the cycle is understood: The P-wave indicates the electrical activity associated with contraction of the cardiac atria, the heart's...

Mbuti Dance

Mbuti Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
760 words

...as in the reproductive cycle, which is echoed in dance movements. As if to regenerate the cycle interrupted by the death, the molimo dance emphasizes the separate but equally necessary roles of male and female in creating life. The men build a sacred fire as they dance and then, with a movement imitating the act of copulation, fan it into a blaze. The women slowly and deliberately dance through the fire, scattering the burning logs, which the men once again build into a blaze. At any moment, the women can stop the activity of the men— “killing the hunt...

mélodie

mélodie   Reference library

Leslie Orrey and Roger Nichols

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
942 words

...to Gounod's basic model. Fauré's early songs remain close to the romance , but in such a mélodie as Automne ( 1878 ) the regular rhythms are already threatening rather than consoling. His 17 settings of Paul Verlaine , made between 1887 and 1894 , wonderfully mirror the poet's elegant, melancholy languor and, in the cycle La Bonne Chanson ( 1892–4 ), his ability to break out into joy. Such later cycles as La Chanson d'Ève ( 1906–10 ) and Le Jardin clos ( 1914 ) show Fauré's harmony at its most elusive, but in two final cycles, Mirages (...

Festivals and Festival Cycles

Festivals and Festival Cycles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,724 words

...more complex; it was dialectical, and its symbolism was exuberant. Besides the solar reference, the structure of the festival calendar derived from seasonal and agricultural cycles. The division of the year into the dry season ( tonalco ) and the rainy season ( xopan ) was fundamental. Ceremonies dedicated to the deities of rain, maize, and the earth provided the basic calendrical cycle. Mesoamerica is situated within the tropical latitudes, where the sun passes the zenith twice a year, on its apparent journey toward the Tropic of Cancer (23°27′N), and on its...

arousal vs awareness

arousal vs awareness   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Consciousness

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,438 words
Illustration(s):
2

...network is also known to be the most active ‘by default’ in resting non‐stimulated conditions ( see conscious resting state ). Awareness seems not exclusively related to the activity in the frontoparietal network but, as importantly, to the functional connectivity within this network and with the thalami. Long‐range cortico‐cortical and corticothalamo‐cortical ‘functional disconnections’ have been identified in the vegetative state and recovery is paralleled by a functional restoration of the frontoparietal network and part of its cortico‐thalamocortical...

breathing

breathing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
2,638 words
Illustration(s):
1

...change. At the end of inspiration such activity ceases fairly rapidly, allowing the lungs to deflate due to elastic recoil back to their starting lung volume at FRC. The cycle then repeats. It is generally held that during breathing at rest expiration is a mainly ‘passive’ process, although some activity in expiratory muscles may maintain the outflow of air. The inspiratory augmentation in the EMG is due to the progressive recruitment in the number and discharge frequencies (e.g. ranging from 5–25 Hz) of the active motor units in the respective muscles....

Sabbath

Sabbath   Reference library

Troy W. Martin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Ethics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Philosophy
Length:
3,040 words

...calendar as a precedent for the sabbath is also not persuasive. This calendar’s basic unit was a week of 7 days, and its secondary unit was a period of 50 days or seven of these weeks plus one additional day as a day of celebration or termination. Seven of these 50-day periods (350 days) plus 2 festival weeks (14 days) and 1 supremely sacred day (1 day) comprise a 365-day year (Morgenstern, p. 136). This calendar is called “pentecontad” because of its 50-day cycles, but lack of evidence for this calendar makes this proposal “the least likely to be...

Ritualizing and Anthropology

Ritualizing and Anthropology   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,720 words

... identified two principal types of rituals, both tied to natural cycles: rites of passage and rites of intensification . Rites of passage involve transformations in the life cycle of an individual. They typically occur around times of personal transition, such as birth, puberty, marriage and death. Initiation rites for shamans, healers, priests and priestesses are also considered rites of passage. In some religions, rites of passage involve the temporary isolation of initiates from the rest of society. Among the Plains Indians in North America, for example,...

Economy, American, since World War II

Economy, American, since World War II   Reference library

Grahame Thompson

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
6,144 words

... is given some analytical purchase by being organized —in the first instance at least—around the cyclical nature of economic activity. Capitalist economies—of which the US is exemplary—tend to move in cycles of what is popularly known as “boom and bust.” In a more academic parlance this is termed the “business cycle,” and it has tended to take a six to ten-year period to move through the stages of first an expansion of economic activity, followed by contraction. Because the US economy has been of such importance to the health of the international economy (or...

Economy, American, since World War II

Economy, American, since World War II   Reference library

Grahame Thompson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,185 words

...given some analytical purchase by being organized—in the first instance at least—around the cyclical nature of economic activity. Capitalist economies—of which the United States is exemplary—tend to move in cycles of what is popularly known as “boom and bust.” In a more academic parlance this is termed the “business cycle,” and it has tended to take a six to ten year period to move through the stages of first an expansion of economic activity, followed by contraction. Because the US economy has been of such importance to the health of the international economy...

Bacteria and Archaea

Bacteria and Archaea   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
3,133 words
Illustration(s):
2

...number of microbes deriving their existence from coupling the oxidation-reduction reactions is incredibly important for the cycling of elements on earth. Global cycles, including those of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, are driven primarily by the metabolic activity of microbes, and it is these activities that support plant and animal life on the planet. Most of what we know about microbes and their contribution to global cycles is derived from studies of microbes that have been isolated from all other organisms and grown in “pure cultures.” Growing a...

Nuclear Industry

Nuclear Industry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,102 words
Illustration(s):
1

...linear energy transfer radiation. Gamma rays (γ) are photons emitted from the nucleus of a radionuclide during radioactive decay. source : From Mounfield ( 1991 , p. 333). High-volume, low-activity solid wastes arise in mining and uranium ore processing at the front end of the fuel cycle, from reactor operations, and from plant decommissioning. Generally speaking, low-activity wastes contain radionuclides with short half-lives and are short-lived. Most of the world's annual total of mined uranium—around 34,000 metric tons in 1995 —is mined in Canada (32...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,747 words

.... From 1500 to 1000 bce , small settlements of sedentary agriculturalists were formed, which produced baskets, ceramics, and stone objects by the first specialists. During this period, called the Formative (Preclassic), agricultural activity was transformed into an essential aspect of existence ( Wolf 1966 ), when the basic patterns of Mesoamerican civilization were originated and tested: technology, architecture, artisanal specialization, social differentiation, and religious specialization. According to Mangelsdorf , MacNeish , and Willey ( 1964 ),...

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