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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Italy

Italy   Reference library

Giorgio Rochat, Lucio Ceva (Intelligence), and Tr. John Gooch

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
19,646 words
Illustration(s):
2

...(six battalions in all), and motorized artillery. Light divisions ( celeri ) consisted of two regiments of cavalry, one of bersaglieri on trucks, motor cycles, and bicycles, and a regiment of artillery which was partly horse-drawn and partly motorized. Armoured divisions had one regiment of infantry consisting of 184 light tanks, a regiment of bersaglieri (two battalions in trucks, the third on motor cycles) and a regiment of motorized artillery of 24 75 mm. guns. Alpine divisions consisted of two regiments of alpini and a regiment of artillery of 24...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...origins of a naval base at Portsmouth. John (r. 1199–1216). Whereas Richard’s military reputation outshines the rest of his abilities, John’s nonmilitary traits have long complicated our appreciation of his military policies. The epithet “Softsword” scarcely helped the picture, nor did his 1185 expedition as Lord of Ireland, which ended in a personal shambles. The early loss of Normandy and other Angevin heartlands to the French overshadowed the rest of John’s reign. The losses also meant that John gave Britain more attention than any recent monarch had. As...

Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
24,715 words
Illustration(s):
4

...also the general historical and cultural context in which they were generated, a consideration that also applies to material and visual material. This is especially apparent with respect to art, where different types of visual polemic or choice of style and format for images or cycles of images reflected developments in ecclesiastical politics and theology, as well as cultural priorities and perceptions. Similar considerations apply to sigillography, too, where the choice of invocative formula, types of monogram, and use of imagery are part of a contemporary...

Crusades

Crusades   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
48,851 words
Illustration(s):
8

...Andrew’s departure, only John of Brienne, as King of Jerusalem, held royal rank, and though elected leader of the armies for the assault on Egypt, he had to contend with the papal legate, the leaders of the military orders, and the various German, English, and French nobles who cycled in and out of the army. The target of the invasion, Damietta, was a strong fortress, but was considered attainable compared to Alexandria. The crusaders disembarked at the end of May 1218 , but the sultan’s son, al-Kamil, though surprised, managed to assemble a scratch force to...

World System History

World System History   Reference library

Robert A. Denemark

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,279 words

...of a laboratory, such differences cannot be ignored. But what constitutes a repetitive process or cycle, as opposed to a random distribution of activities? Some of the literature concerning cycles seeks to affix a specific timeframe to such phenomena, while other work suggests that social processes may play out at different speeds given differences in population density, communications technology, and other variables. Our desire to identify cycles might also lead to problems. A cyclical view of human existence dominated premodern conceptions of social...

Financial Crises

Financial Crises   Reference library

Candace Archer

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,177 words

...long-term cyclical behavior of debt. An exemplary study was published by Christian Suter ( 1992 ) who examined debt cycles from 1820 onward and correlated peripheral debt to both secular trends and long waves. He theorized that the accumulation of debt in peripheral states was related to Kondratieff growth cycles, Kuznets cycles, and world leadership cycles. Core boom phases led to capital exports, which correlated to upswings in the cycles. Default was correlated with contraction phases ( Suter 1992 ). These sorts of analyses about the debt crisis...

World System in the Information Age

World System in the Information Age   Reference library

Joachim K. Rennstich

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,068 words

...of a new long cycle of global system development. Spar ( 2001 ) connects the ventures of Portuguese explorers of the fifteenth century to the development of the telegraph and radio in the middle of the nineteenth century, and the advent of satellite television and the internet in the twentieth century. She identifies a common dynamic in the development of new information systems, with bursts of innovation at the beginning, creating new commercial opportunities, creating a gap between economic, social, and technological activity and political control,...

Evolutionary Systems Theory

Evolutionary Systems Theory   Reference library

Joachim K. Rennstich

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,992 words

...Thousand? London: Routledge. Freeman, C. (1987) Technical Innovation, Diffusion, and Long Cycles of Economic Development. In T. Vasko (ed.) The Long Wave Debate: Selected Papers . Berlin: Springer-Verlag, pp. 295–309. Freeman, C. , and Louçã, F. (2001) As Time Goes by: From the Industrial Revolutions to the Information Revolution . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Freeman, C. , and Perez, C. (1988) Structural Crises of Adjustment: Business Cycles and Investment Behaviour. In G. Dosi , C. Freeman , R.R. Nelson , G. Silverberg , and L.L.G....

Nuclear Proliferation and Non-Proliferation

Nuclear Proliferation and Non-Proliferation   Reference library

Jacques E.C. Hymans

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,082 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the activities of such groups as well as the advent of globalized proliferation networks and the widespread acceptance of the Cohen–Frankel “opaque proliferation” concept, international confidence in the non-proliferation regime today is at an all-time low ( Montgomery 2005 ). One might retort that states nevertheless appear to have retained confidence in the NPT regime, because after all, they have not abandoned it. But this pattern of continued adhesion may in fact simply reveal the inadequacy of the most basic assumption upon which Dai rests her...

Diplomacy and Intelligence

Diplomacy and Intelligence   Reference library

John D. Stempel

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
4,075 words

... 2005 ). This did not stop spying, but hastened the creation of separate intelligence services and loosened diplomatic control over such activities in many democratic states. An excellent contemporary study of morality in espionage and how it affects diplomacy, by former CIA officer and now professor James Olson , updates the triangular discussion of diplomacy–morality–espionage ( Olson 2006 ). Given the rest of the world’s reticence to discuss this kind of subject, it will be interesting to see how much further it will develop. With terrorism taking...

The International Society – World Society Distinction

The International Society – World Society Distinction   Reference library

John Williams

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,734 words

...of classical Realist theory ( Lebow 2003 ). Wight’s ( 1966 ) famous analysis of the poverty of international theory, in comparison to the richness of theorizing politics within the political community, rested on a claim about the “recurrence and repetition” of the international arena rooted in a tragic inability to break a cycle of violence and insecurity. This is not for want of trying, but the means available, particularly the tendency for international societies to succumb to efforts at creating universal empires (Wight 1977:43–5), produce...

Information Technologies and the Global Political Economy

Information Technologies and the Global Political Economy   Reference library

Jeffrey A. Hart

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
7,333 words

...this in the 1990s. A few argued that ICT industries were subject to virtuous circles of innovation and growth that created the basis for an economy immune from the up and down cycles of the past. During the so-called dot.com bubble of 1998–2001 , a decline in the growth rates of ICT industries resulted in some scholars reminding the world that all industries are subject to economic cycles and that the ICT industries are not so different from other industries, but others argued instead that the rise of the ICT industries had forever changed the world economy in...

Development and Religion

Development and Religion   Reference library

Robert M. Bosco

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,214 words

...that “a basic contradiction of the market is that it requires character traits such as honesty, trust, etc. in order to work efficiently, yet it is primarily motivated by a desire for profit that tends to erode such personal responsibility for others” ( Loy 2003 :12). This particular Buddhist conception thus seeks to re-embed the economy in social relations by inculcating a spirit of compassion for others and stressing the crucial social and moral role of the Buddhist principle of self-limitation. It is not that Buddhism denies the importance of basic material...

Modernization Theory

Modernization Theory   Reference library

Prateek Goorha

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,514 words

...and so on, which, in turn, is likely to hinder the progress of reform. This credible commitments idea gives us the virtuous versus vicious cycle theory, a dynamic relevant for modernization theory since it makes economic and political outcomes logically codependent. It is easy to see that this argument is obviously closely related to the economic convergence literature. Simply, the idea is that virtuous cycles are virtuous for the reason that they reinforce economic reform, which eventually leads to higher growth; it takes no far stretch of the...

Theoretical Approaches to International Organization

Theoretical Approaches to International Organization   Reference library

Christer Jönsson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,917 words

...standardized operation and clockwork precision. It may be argued that “the mechanistic mode of thought has shaped our most basic conception of what organization is all about” ( Morgan 1986 :22). On the other hand, it is commonplace to use organisms as metaphors for organizations. We speak of different species of organizations, of organizations adapting to their environment, of organizational needs, health, and life cycles, etc. The personification tendency is especially evident in the common way of speaking of organizations as if they were information...

Ethnic Identities and Boundaries: Anthropological, Psychological, and Sociological Approaches

Ethnic Identities and Boundaries: Anthropological, Psychological, and Sociological Approaches   Reference library

Landon E. Hancock

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
12,107 words

...the activities that one wishes to protect often involve culturally determined ways of satisfying one’s (or one’s group’s) basic needs. Therefore, even difference – not just opposition – can cause contention and conflict ( Nudler 1990 :197). Clark, too, seems to support the contention that ethnocentric behavior stems from cultural sources, which are then used to protect unique methods of satisfying basic human needs. In addition, she asserts that culture is based in evolution, in the sense that it provides the learned traditions for satisfying those basic...

Globalization and the Environment: There Must Be Some Way Out of Here

Globalization and the Environment: There Must Be Some Way Out of Here   Reference library

Ronnie D. Lipschutz and Felicia A. Peck

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,687 words

...least, the price of such a right will be determined by supply and demand in a pollution market, and those who can afford to purchase emission permits will do so, while those who cannot will be forced, if necessary, to eliminate those activities that generate excess emissions. The hope is that low-cost emission reduction activities in developing countries will generate returns through sales to high-cost emission reduction industries and industrialized countries, resulting in a transfer of technology and capital from the rich to the poor. While such cap and trade...

The Ethnic, Nationalist, and Religious Roots of Terrorism

The Ethnic, Nationalist, and Religious Roots of Terrorism   Reference library

Josephine Squires

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,627 words

...no empathy with their victims. Historic Grievances Some terrorist organizations may have drawn on the experience of historical terrorist groups, such as the Zealots and the Assassins, in order to more efficiently conduct their own acts. Indeed, the basic justification for many terrorist activities is to be found in historic grievances held by one group against another. Zulaika and Warren ( 2006 ) and Watson ( 2008 ) view the creation of ETA as resulting from a culture and history of political violence. Influences of Leadership Some Palestinian...

Development Economics: From Classical to Critical Analysis

Development Economics: From Classical to Critical Analysis   Reference library

Susan Engel

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,580 words

...growth in actual production. She posited that this capacity to earn rents through non-productive activities would decrease overall plant productivity because, in expanding the size of a plant, the overhead costs of the plant are increased. Moreover, the quota system supposedly expanded corruption in industry and government. Jagdish Bhagwati ( 1982 ) came to similar conclusions about the impact of what he labeled “direct unproductive profit-seeking activities.” These studies resonated with fellow neoliberals because they seemingly demonstrated that...

The Colonial Encounter and Its Legacy

The Colonial Encounter and Its Legacy   Reference library

José da Mota-Lopes

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,305 words

...In the rest of the world, important works by Yves Benot , Pierre Philippe Rey ( 1971 ) , Rene Dumont , Claude Meillassoux , Arghiri Emmanuel ( 1972 [ 1969 ]), and many others contributed equally to a new understanding of that historical colonial relationship between an exploitative core and an increasingly dependent and impoverished periphery. The period from the late 1940s to the late 1970s was also very important to the renewal of the understanding and study of European colonialism. First, this was because of the intensification of activity by a...

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