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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Nuclear Industry

Nuclear Industry   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,102 words
Illustration(s):
1

...linear energy transfer radiation. Gamma rays (γ) are photons emitted from the nucleus of a radionuclide during radioactive decay. source : From Mounfield ( 1991 , p. 333). High-volume, low-activity solid wastes arise in mining and uranium ore processing at the front end of the fuel cycle, from reactor operations, and from plant decommissioning. Generally speaking, low-activity wastes contain radionuclides with short half-lives and are short-lived. Most of the world's annual total of mined uranium—around 34,000 metric tons in 1995 —is mined in Canada (32...

Population Growth and the Environment

Population Growth and the Environment   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,227 words
Illustration(s):
1

...emissions of other greenhouse gases result from activities related to population size (such as agriculture, the source of a large fraction of methane and nitrous oxide emissions), population growth may exert a major influence on the buildup of greenhouse gases. Another measure of the impact of the global population on the environment is the fraction of the terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP, the basic energy supply of all terrestrial animals) directly consumed, co-opted, or eliminated by human activity. This figure is now an estimated 40 percent. Of...

Biological Productivity

Biological Productivity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...dioxide in the atmosphere is fairly well mixed and its concentration generally varies by less than 5 percent seasonally and latitudinally. [See Carbon Cycle ; and Nitrogen Cycle .] Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration has varied dramatically over geologic time, and has increased by more than 30 percent since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, apparently as a result of human activities, including combustion of fossil fuels, forest clearing, and agriculture. This increase in global atmospheric carbon dioxide may have increased global primary...

Energy and Human Activity

Energy and Human Activity   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
8,105 words
Illustration(s):
7

...and materials are used—often by using improved design tools to minimize materials in basic designs and to ensure that production processes operate continuously at peak performance points. Changes in the mix of industries—away from traditional materials industries—have reduced the energy intensity of industry by 10–20 percent over the past two decades. The exception is Denmark, which appears to have shifted to more energy-intensive industries. Energy and Human Activity. Figure 4. U.S. Energy Use in Manufacturing. (Energy use data from U.S. Office of...

Amazonia, Deforestation Of

Amazonia, Deforestation Of   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,326 words
Illustration(s):
2

...carbon; this is the “medium” value from Nordhaus, 1991.) [See Ecotaxation .] Loss of water cycling Water cycling is different from biodiversity and carbon loss in that impacts of deforestation in this area fall directly on Brazil rather than being spread over the Earth as a whole. [See Hydrologic Cycle .] Several independent lines of evidence indicate that about half of the rainfall in the Brazilian Amazon is water that is recycled through the forest, the rest originating from water vapor blown into the region directly from the Atlantic Ocean (Gash et...

Amazonia and Deforestation

Amazonia and Deforestation   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
5,747 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the purchase price of land today. These calculations use U.S.$7.3/ton C as the value of permanently sequestered carbon. Loss of water cycling Water cycling is different from biodiversity and carbon in that impacts of deforestation in this area fall directly on Brazil rather than being spread over the world as a whole. About 20–30% of the rainfall in the Brazilian Amazon is water that is recycled through the forest, the rest originating from water vapor blown into the region directly from the Atlantic Ocean ( Lean et al., 1996 ). Of the water entering the...

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon Dioxide   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
4,785 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Dioxide . Climate Change 19 (1991), 99–118. Moore B., III , and B. H. Braswell, Jr. Planetary Metabolism: Understanding the Carbon Cycle . Ambio 23 (February 1994), 4–12. CO 2 and the terrestrial biosphere Green, N. P. O. , G. W. Stout , and D. J. Taylor . Biological Science , vol. 1, Organisms, Energy and Environment. 2d ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Biology textbook that contains basic details of the biochemistry of photosynthesis. Leemans, R. Impacts of Greenhouse Gases and Climatic Change. In The Global Environment:...

Plate Tectonics

Plate Tectonics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,065 words
Illustration(s):
5

...greenhouse mechanisms, of variable volatile production associated with plate tectonic volcanic activity at the ridge crests has scarcely been explored, but profound changes in climate could be effected. See also Earth Structure and Development ; Land Surface Processes ; and Natural Hazards . Arthur, M. A. , et al. Variations in the Global Carbon Cycle during the Cretaceous Related to Climate, Volcanism, and Changes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. In The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide: Natural Variations Archean to Present , edited by E. T....

Mobile Earth

Mobile Earth   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...or subduction volcanism. The effect on climate (through greenhouse mechanisms) of variable volatile production associated with plate-tectonic volcanic activity at the ridge crests has scarcely been explored, but it may be profound. Bibliography Arthur , M. A. , et al. “Variations in the Global Carbon Cycle During the Cretaceous Related to Climate, Volcanism, and Changes in Atmospheric CO 2 .” In The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO 2 : Natural Variations, Archean to Present, edited by E. T. Sundquist and W. S. Broecker . Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical...

Water Quality

Water Quality   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
9,089 words
Illustration(s):
5

...monitoring activities can be found in Chapman ( 1996 ) and Adriansee et al. ( 1995 ). All monitoring activities should include at least the following steps: definition of objectives; monitoring design; field sampling and observations, including necessary hydrological measurements (e.g., water discharge, water table level); laboratory analyses, including data quality control, data storage, treatment, and reporting; and water quality assessment with respect to water use criteria, background references, and aquatic biota conservation. After one cycle of...

Disease

Disease   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,137 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the human host by a mosquito and inoculated through the skin. Some pathogens have complicated cycles that involve one or more intermediate hosts, typically animals that support one stage of development of the pathogen. Other microbes, such as hantaviruses, reside in an animal, known as a reservoir host . Humans can become infected if they enter the habitat of the animal or if they come into contact with them or their secretions/excretions through other activities. The human may be irrelevant to the maintenance of the microbe in nature, although the human, if...

Disease

Disease   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,032 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to the human host by a mosquito and inoculated through the skin. Some pathogens have complicated cycles that involve one or more intermediate hosts, typically animals that support one stage of development of the pathogen. Other microbes, such as hantaviruses, reside in an animal, known as a reservoir host. Humans can become infected if they enter the habitat of the animal or if they come into contact with them or their secretions/excretions through other activities. The human may be irrelevant to the maintenance of the microbe in nature, although the human, if...

Economic Conditions and Public Opinion on Climate Change

Economic Conditions and Public Opinion on Climate Change   Reference library

Salil Benegal and Lyle Scruggs

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
10,072 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of the economy. Impact of Business Cycle Fluctuations on Attitudes Toward Climate Change Several studies emphasize the effect of the business cycle on how people think about climate change. These studies have converged in agreement that increased state or national unemployment rates, or other indicators or reduced economic growth rates, are correlated with lower support for environmental policies and lower reported levels of concern and belief in climate change. Kahn and Kotchen ( 2011 ) examine Google search activity during the economic recession in the...

Climate

Climate   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,896 words
Illustration(s):
3

...system in the western Pacific. This “oscillator” interacts with the rest of the global circulation, often altering it and causing extreme weather events in various parts of the world, including the United States. Understanding this phenomenon is important because being able to predict its onset could help us predict the occurrence of associated extreme weather events. Like global warming, ENSO is evident in global records. Another proposed oscillation is an 11-year and a 22-year sunspot cycle, but the available data do not convincingly demonstrate its...

Irrigation

Irrigation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,463 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Middle East is irrigated, over 20 percent in Asia, but 12 percent or less in the rest of the world. Irrigation. Table 1. Net Irrigated Area as a Percentage of Primary Crop Area and World Irrigated Area region primary crops— harvested area (1,000 hectares)* irrigated area (1,000 hectares) irrigated area (as percentage of primary crops area) irrigated area (as percentage of world irrigated area) Asia 762,244 166,860 22 63 India 209,605 57,000 27 22 China 188,212 49,880 27 19 Rest of Asia † 364,426 59,980 16 23 North Africa and Middle East ‡ 25,208 22,405 89 9...

Communicating about Climate Change with Policymakers

Communicating about Climate Change with Policymakers   Reference library

Ishani Mukherjee and Michael Howlett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...by Sabatier, “one of the basic strategies of any coalition is to manipulate the assignment of responsibilities in governmental programs so that units it controls have the most authority” ( 1987 , p. 664). For example, in discussing the perceptual divides that polarize the political debate about climate change in the United States, Nisbet ( 2009 ) discusses how powerful advocacy actors can frame the nature and consequences of climate change in contrasting ways—for example, how far and to what extent do human activities contribute to climate...

Atmosphere Dynamics

Atmosphere Dynamics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
7,683 words
Illustration(s):
13

...continental interiors, rainfall exceeds evaporation and there is a net deposition of water on the surface. This hydrologic cycle is closed by the runoff of liquid water in the form of rivers flowing from the continental interiors back to the oceans, and by the flow of glaciers transporting frozen water away from continental interiors at high latitudes. [See Hydrologic Cycle .] The situation is more complex than this transport cycle would suggest, however. Water vapor is not simply advected passively by the atmospheric flow. Rather, there is a strong...

Population Policy

Population Policy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...resources, and the weakening of vulnerable institutions. How do institutions, population growth, economic growth, and the environment interact? Some economists suggest that poorly developed institutions and high fertility reinforce each other in a cycle of social and economic stagnation. Such a vicious cycle could explain why high fertility is frequently associated with low levels of institutional development. It may also help us understand how declines in fertility can stimulate institutional and economic development and be stimulated themselves by that...

Media Coverage oF International Climate Summits and Negotiations

Media Coverage oF International Climate Summits and Negotiations   Reference library

Jens Wolling and Dorothee Arlt

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...conference. Other relevant factors influencing the coverage are internal national political conflicts or vulnerability to the effects of climate change. Communication Activities of Civil Society Actors in the Context of Climate Summits Another relevant aspect that characterizes the coverage on the conferences is the consideration of political protests, positions of civil society, activities of social movements, and the representation of ethnic minorities. For example, Gunster and Fraser ( 2011 ) scrutinized how Canadian traditional mainstream and...

Population Policy

Population Policy   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...resources, and the weakening of vulnerable institutions. How do institutions, population growth, economic growth, and the environment interact? Several economists suggest that poorly developed institutions and high fertility reinforce each other in a cycle of social and economic stagnation. Such a vicious cycle could explain why high fertility is frequently associated with low levels of institutional development. It may also help us understand how declines in fertility can stimulate institutional and economic development and be stimulated themselves by the...

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