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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...ended up affecting the book industry or the business of bookselling: for example, a protectionist national policy toward papermaking in Mexico resulted in higher production costs for books. In addition, the fall in oil prices, precipitating a financial crisis that led to cycles of hyperinflation, devaluation, and economic recession in most of the region during the 1980s actually reduced the population’s income, increased book production costs, and led to declining book sales. From 1984 to 1990 , for example, Argentina produced 18 per cent fewer...

World Systems Theory

World Systems Theory   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
2,420 words

...to an ever-expanding percentage of the products of human activity), and increased proletarianization by freely engaging workers in wage-labor and causing ever widening disparities between the core and the peripheries. The CWE experience has led not only to expansionist trends, but also to cyclical changes, or Kondratieff cycles (forty to sixty years of rapid growth followed by a slowing-down). It is also subject to hegemony by a great core power strong in production, commerce, and finance in shorter cycles. Wallerstein talks about three such hegemons: Holland (...

Buddhist Ethics and Nonviolent Action

Buddhist Ethics and Nonviolent Action   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
1,878 words

...for his followers lessens the effects of these and eventually, at least for some practitioners, eradicates them entirely. A person who fully eradicates them becomes awakened and achieves nirvana, the cessation of desire, henceforth lives a selfless life and, at death, ends the cycle of rebirth that keeps people chained to an endless series of lives and suffering. In Theravada Buddhism, practiced in Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Myanmar (Burma), and other countries, nirvana is something only monks attain; under Mahayana Buddhism, prevalent in China, Japan, and Tibet,...

Peace Training

Peace Training   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,459 words

...these activities have commenced. Municipal corporations, for example, may have insurance policies that require an anti-riot presence as soon as a store window is broken. “Trashing” protesters may see the presence of the riot squad as an unwarranted escalation or provocation. Peace training and cooperative planning by police and protesters help to keep protests and demonstrations peaceful. The fourth training activity involves work with other organizations. This begins with familiarization visits and by opening lines of communication. These activities can...

Violence

Violence   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
6,192 words

...types of structural violence. Table 1 is anthropocentric. A fifth column could be added for the needs of the nonhuman rest of nature, the sine qua non for human existence. “Ecological balance” is a frequently used term for environment system maintenance. If not satisfied, there is ecological degradation, breakdown, and imbalance. Ecobalance is to the environment what survival plus wellness plus freedom plus identity is for human basic maintenance; if not satisfied, the result is human degradation. The sum of all five, for all, might be one definition of...

Escalation to Violence and to War

Escalation to Violence and to War   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,928 words

...might suggest. Even with gradual intensification, it is very likely that at some point “more and more” eventually (if not unequivocally) becomes “different.” As a result, the basic model of conflict escalation would resemble two ladders with steps or treads of different heights (risers) set alongside each other. A conflict profile drawn with one line—similar to the typical “life cycle of conflict” advanced by analysts (Bloomfield and Liess 1960 ; Lund 1996 )—implies that the conflict rises and falls on its own, whereas two lines or ladders side by side...

Conflict

Conflict   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
9,815 words

...a social science of conflict. This rested on two assumptions: first, that the many forms of conflict, of which war is one, have in common, for all their obvious differences, some basic elements; and second, that conflict in all its forms can best be understood through scientific study. Lewis Fry Richardson, indeed, had in fact already embarked on an enterprise of this kind, although his writings were published in book form only posthumously, in 1960 . For the purpose of statistical analysis, he sought to create a basic unit of conflict, the “deadly...

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
13,964 words

...is cross-community activity, some of which receives funding from charitable associations or governing authorities (as in the “Towards a Shared City” project of Belfast City Council), with a dual focus on reducing intergroup tension and on socioeconomic regeneration. The latter goal is recognized by policymakers and practitioners alike to be essential to building sustainable peace, given that Northern Ireland is one of the most economically unequal societies in the developed world, with a rate of persistent child poverty double that of the rest of the United...

Arms Control and Disarmament

Arms Control and Disarmament   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
23,988 words

...these weapons and other systems with the potential to kill millions of unprotected citizens a matter of national security and survival. As soon as the threat is identified, two basic responses predictably arise in the policy community: 1) to respond militarily and match or exceed the threat, or 2) to engage diplomatically and attempt to limit or eliminate the threat. This basic dichotomy is repeated time and again in arms-control scenarios. When NATO sought in the late 1970s to neutralize the growth of a new generation of Soviet nuclear weaponry targeted on...

Conflict Resolution

Conflict Resolution   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
9,646 words

...on a large variety of special foci of research and practice. This differentiation is likely to continue to increase. Persons working in the CR field pursue many different kinds of activities, including researching, theorizing, consulting, training, advocating policies, and implementing CR ideas in ongoing conflicts. The interplay among persons pursuing those various activities is generally seen as useful, even essential, to CR’s further advancement. There is evidence that utilization of the CR approach contributes to averting and stopping large-scale...

Ritualizing and Anthropology

Ritualizing and Anthropology   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
1,720 words

... identified two principal types of rituals, both tied to natural cycles: rites of passage and rites of intensification . Rites of passage involve transformations in the life cycle of an individual. They typically occur around times of personal transition, such as birth, puberty, marriage and death. Initiation rites for shamans, healers, priests and priestesses are also considered rites of passage. In some religions, rites of passage involve the temporary isolation of initiates from the rest of society. Among the Plains Indians in North America, for example,...

Anthropometric History

Anthropometric History   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,886 words
Illustration(s):
4

...who grew under good nutritional circumstances have nearly identical stature. Height at a particular age reflects an individual's history of net nutrition, or diet minus claims on the diet made by work (or physical activity) and disease. Metabolic requirements for basic functions, such as breathing and blood circulation while at rest, also make claims on the diet. The synergy between malnutrition and illness may further reduce the nutrition left over for growth. Poorly nourished children are more susceptible to infection, which reduces the body's...

Veblen, Thorstein Bunde

Veblen, Thorstein Bunde (1857–1929)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,878 words

...have to submit and adapt to the rules of business enterprises. Many phenomena such as large corporations, economic change, business cycles, unions, imperialism, and irrational behavior were not incorporated into orthodox economic theories because they were considered abnormal phenomena. For Karl Marx's economics, Veblen thinks that it was based on the dialectic whose most of its laws are grounded in the condition of rest, or equilibrium. Marx argues that the class struggle is the driving force of history, where the proletariat are united according to class...

Biophilia

Biophilia   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,867 words

...and artificial landscapes. This belief is an illusion, however, as even today, people rely on natural process and diversity as an indispensable source of basic food stocks, medicines, building and decorative supplies, and other commodities. Moreover, healthy ecosystem functioning sustains all life, including our own, through basic life support functions such as oxygen and water production, nutrient cycling, seed dispersal, etc. This utilitarian dependence on nature will likely greatly expand in the future due to rapid developments in molecular biology, genetic...

Consumption

Consumption   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
7,768 words
Illustration(s):
2

...of a highly ordered civil society and to indulge the baser instincts, which had been suppressed throughout the rest of the year. Effects of Economic Growth Economic growth, first experienced in the northwestern European nations (England and the Low Countries), totally transformed the environment in which the populace both worked and played. Improved agricultural supply systems allowed those engaged in industrial-commercial activity, to divorce themselves from the round of rustic pursuits and assume a functionally separate identity from the farmer and...

Urbanization

Urbanization   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
5,848 words
Illustration(s):
2

...in income and growing marketization (which intensify urban activities), has been steepening hierarchy in size distributions. This has often taken the form of primacy— with the largest city towering over the rest and many small places losing their centrality. In actuality, a central-place system will probably move toward a steeper size distribution than the rank-size rule predicts. Many cities and groups of cities do not fit the central-place model, neither in the nature of their activities nor in their spatial groupings and size distributions. They can,...

Cosmology

Cosmology   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,668 words

...human ecology, environmental anthropology, ethnosciences, and ethnoecology have documented these last decades how indigenous societies engage in sophisticated calculations to correct or avoid negative ecological impacts of human activities. For example, in tribal societies in New Guinea, these imply the use of ritual cycles to manage population levels and de-escalate social conflicts in societies engaged in cultivation and animal husbandry. Among tribal peoples of the Amazon, cosmologies are used by shamans to do long-term environmental assessment to...

Human Needs

Human Needs   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...M. C. (1978). Basic human needs: A framework for action (report to the United Nations Environment Programme). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books. McHale, J. , & McHale, M. C. (1979). Meeting basic human needs . The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science , 442, 13–27. McMunn, A. , Bartley, M. , & Kuh, D. (2006). Women's health in mid-life: Life course social roles and agency as quality . Social science &medicine , 63(6), 1561–1572. Moon, B. E. (1991). Basic human needs. In The political economy of basic human needs (pp....

Sudan

Sudan   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
7,724 words
Illustration(s):
2

...this trade tended to be centered on luxury goods, such as kola nuts, gold dust, salt, and slaves. However, in many cases bulky goods, including agricultural products, traveled long distances by taking advantage of nomadic transhumance cycles. Until the seventeenth century, the majority of West African economic activity was centered in the desert-savanna region rather than in the coastal zone. The “desert-side” sector was an engine of economic growth that linked North Africa, communities in the Sahara, states of the savanna, and the forest region in a...

Democracy, the Limits of Liberal

Democracy, the Limits of Liberal   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
7,862 words

...of cooperation and its requirements. It is more sensible since we are all engaged in cooperative endeavors, some of which we don't dare imagine ourselves living without. With cooperative activity as the lens through which we consider improvements and innovations, the status of unobstructed volition is demoted to that of an instrument. In addition, with cooperation as the basic value, rights and justice will no longer seem extraneous, and hence easily ignored. In giving importance to cooperation, there is no need to reject individual liberty; rather it comes to...

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