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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

basic rest–activity cycle

basic rest–activity cycle n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... restactivity cycle n. A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep . Also called the restactivity cycle . BRAC ...

basic rest-activity cycle

basic rest-activity cycle  

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the rest-activity ...
chronobiology

chronobiology n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n. The branch of biology concerned with biological rhythms . See biological clock , biological rhythm . See also alpha wave , basic restactivity cycle , beta wave , circadian rhythm , circannual rhythm , delta wave , gamma wave , infradian rhythm , menstrual cycle , sensorimotor rhythm , sleep–wake cycle , suprachiasmatic nucleus , telomere , theta wave , ultradian rhythm , Zeitgeber . [From Greek chronos time + English biology...

biological rhythm

biological rhythm n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...rhythm n. Any periodic, more-or-less regular fluctuation or cycle in a biological system or process that is not wholly under the control of environmental cues but is controlled centrally by a biological clock . It may be an ultradian rhythm such as a circannual rhythm or a menstrual cycle ; a circadian rhythm such as the sleep–wake cycle ; or an infradian rhythm such as an alpha wave , basic restactivity cycle , beta wave , delta wave , gamma wave , sensorimotor rhythm , or theta wave . See also chronobiology , pacemaker...

infradian rhythm

infradian rhythm n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...rhythm n . Any biological rhythm with a period of less than a day. See alpha wave , basic restactivity cycle , beta wave , delta wave , gamma wave , sensorimotor rhythm , theta wave . See also biological clock , chronobiology , Zeitgeber . Compare circadian rhythm , circannual rhythm , ultradian rhythm . [From Latin infra under + dies a...

sleep

sleep n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...III, and IV NREM sleep respectively. See also basal forebrain , basic restactivity cycle , circadian rhythm , delta sleep-inducing peptide , delta wave , dream ( 1 ) , dyssomnias , hypnagogic image , hypnopompic image , K complex , locus coeruleus , magnocellular nucleus , melatonin , nucleus gigantocellularis , paradoxical sleep , parasomnias , PGO spike , pineal gland , polysomnography , pseudoinsomnia , REM atonia , REM rebound , sleep spindle , sleep–wake cycle , sleepwalking , slow-wave sleep , subcoerulear nucleus...

Physical Activity and Sleep

Physical Activity and Sleep   Reference library

Sayaka Aritake-Okada and Sunao Uchida

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
6,110 words
Illustration(s):
1

...passive, automatic homeostatic cycling between wakefulness and sleep is influenced by several factors including physical activity, which also involves the prior activity in a large network of neurons of the CNS. These activities influence the global tendency of the CNS for sleep–wake oscillation ( Vaynman & Gomez-Pinilla, 2005 ). Physical activity could be a robust stimulus for the autoregulatory global phenomenon that affects the entirety of the sleeper’s physiological mechanisms. Appropriate amounts of physical activity could alter those mechanisms in a...

Relaxation and Recovery in Sport and Performance

Relaxation and Recovery in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Maximilian Pelka and Michael Kellmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...it is essential to implement appropriate regeneration phases in training regimens that aim for well-being and competitive success. Optimal recovery is a consciously planned activity that matches situational and environmental needs of an athlete in rest and results in regaining an optimal performance state. An appropriate example of a competition setting is multi-stage cycling, as a healthy recovery-stress balance is crucial in these competitions when athletes are exposed to highly stressful circumstances over an extended period of time ( Filho et al., ...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia   Reference library

Jeffrey Bond and Tony Morris

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,488 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and at the South Australian Sports Institute in Adelaide (cricket and cycling). These tanks were used for relaxation training, stress management, injury management, pain management, training recovery, imagery training, and technique modeling. The flotation tanks were also used for basic research into the impact of the flotation environment on the relaxation response and mood states. Biofeedback training was introduced to the AIS sport psychology program in 1982 , with some very basic heart rate and EMG equipment brought to the AIS by its inaugural sport...

Emotional Self-Regulation in Sport and Performance

Emotional Self-Regulation in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Claudio Robazza and Montse C. Ruiz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
13,178 words
Illustration(s):
3

...on college students engaged on an endurance cycling task ( Bertollo et al., 2015 ). Additional studies in pistol shooting, dart throwing, and race car driving investigating the psychophysiological patterns underlying different types of performance states, such as skin conductance level, skin temperature, breathing rate, heart rate responses, and kinematic patterns, have provided evidence supporting different types of information processing ( Bertollo et al., 2013 ; Filho et al., 2015 ). Electrodermal activity associated with Type 2 and Type 3 performance...

hearing

hearing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,446 words
Illustration(s):
4

...(see the lower part of Fig. 3). A sine wave may also be called a pure tone or simple tone, since it has a very ‘pure’ or ‘clean’ quality, like that of a tuning fork or the Greenwich time signal. For a pure tone the repetition rate, the number of complete cycles per second, is the frequency. The unit of one cycle per second is called the hertz (abbreviated Hz). The Greenwich time signal has a frequency of 1,000 Hz. The highest frequency we can hear varies from 16,000 to 20,000 Hz in young adults, but tends to decrease with increasing age. The lowest frequency...

Healthy and Pathological Neurocognitive Aging: Spectral and Functional Connectivity Analyses Using Magnetoencephalography

Healthy and Pathological Neurocognitive Aging: Spectral and Functional Connectivity Analyses Using Magnetoencephalography   Reference library

Gianluca Susi, Jaisalmer de Frutos-Lucas, Guiomar Niso, Su Miao Ye-Chen, Luis Antón Toro, Brenda Nadia Chino Vilca, and Fernando Maestú

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
11,454 words
Illustration(s):
4

...). These studies can be differentiated into two main classes: Resting-state studies record brain activity while the subject is “at rest,” that is, not performing a directed task or exposed to an external stimulus. This class of recordings provides us with information on the brain’s baseline activity ( Raichle et al., 2001 ). Patterns of brain activation recorded in this condition are not random, showing correlated activity across different brain areas ( Deco et al., 2013 ). Resting-state FC has gained particular importance because it is shaped by the...

Trajectories of Well-Being in Later Life

Trajectories of Well-Being in Later Life   Reference library

Nardi Steverink

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
10,918 words
Illustration(s):
2

...as perceived social support ( Montpetit, Nelson, & Tiberio, 2017 ; Siedlecki, Salthouse, Oishi, & Jeswani, 2014 ), social interaction quality ( Carmichael, Reis, & Duberstein, 2015 ; Fuller-Iglesias, 2015 ), and basic social needs being fulfilled ( Steverink & Lindenberg, 2006 ; Tay & Diener, 2011 ). In addition, social activities ( Okun, Stock, Haring, & Witter, 1984 ), social engagement ( Huxhold et al., 2013 ), and leisure engagement ( Kuykendall et al., 2015 ) were found to be important for SWB. Next to these mostly quantitative studies,...

Biodiversity Metrics in Lifespan Developmental Methodology

Biodiversity Metrics in Lifespan Developmental Methodology   Reference library

Lizbeth Benson and Nilam Ram

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
15,530 words
Illustration(s):
10

...agriculture. Biotropica , 40 , 422–431. Lee, S. , Koffer, R. E. , Sprague, B. N. , Charles, S. T. , Ram, N. , & Almeida, D. M. (2018). Activity diversity and its associations with psychological well-being across adulthood . The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences , 73 (6), 985–995. Lerner, R. M. (1991). Changing organism–context relations as the basic process of development: A developmental contextual perspective. Developmental Psychology , 27 , 27–32. Lerner, R. M. (1996). Relative plasticity, ...

Inflammation as a Biomarker Method in Lifespan Developmental Methodology

Inflammation as a Biomarker Method in Lifespan Developmental Methodology   Reference library

Stephanie J. Wilson, Alex Woody, and Janice K. Kiecolt-Glaser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
9,846 words

...does inflammation’s predictive value degrade: healthy centenarians have high inflammation, similar to that of aged people in poor health ( Salvioli et al., 2009 ). However, centenarians have high anti-inflammatory cytokine activity, suggesting the importance of examining anti-inflammatory cytokines alongside proinflammatory activity, particularly in old age. Early Infection and Stress Can Predict Later Inflammation. Many developmental studies of inflammation have found that early-life infection or psychosocial stress portend greater inflammatory burden and...

Cognition and Mobility With Aging

Cognition and Mobility With Aging   Reference library

Karen Z. H. Li, Halina Bruce, and Rachel Downey

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
6,709 words

...of motor functioning (e.g., early- or late-stage postural recovery; swing or stance phase of the gait cycle) are more vulnerable to cognitive interference. With the advent of neuroimaging techniques, another major aim is to identify the neural substrates that support motor performance and how these might change or be compensated for with aging. Offline observational studies (correlating brain volumes, cortical thickness, white matter integrity, and resting state connectivity with balance or walking measured separately) reveal associations between brain aging...

Blood Pressure as a Biomarker in Gerontological Research

Blood Pressure as a Biomarker in Gerontological Research   Reference library

Thomas M. Hess, Erica L. O’Brien, and Claire M. Growney

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
13,685 words

...of cardiovascular response such as DBP or heart rate (HR), SBP response (i.e., change from baseline) in such situations is thought to be a relatively direct reflection of sympathetic ( β ‎-adrenergic) activity upon the myocardium. Specifically, SBP is a measure of peak arterial pressure during myocardial contraction (i.e. the period of systole in the cardiac cycle), which is influenced by sympathetically induced elevations of myocardial contractile force ( Guyton, 1991 ; Vick, 1984 ). Although other standard measures of CV responsivity have been used to assess...

Ever-Emerging Theories of Aging

Ever-Emerging Theories of Aging   Reference library

W. Andrew Achenbaum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
6,551 words

...Growing old: The process of disengagement . New York, NY: Basic Books. Demos, J. (1970). The little commonwealth . New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Dewey, J. (1939). Introduction. In E. V. Cowdry (Ed.), Problems of ageing (pp. xix–xxvii). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins. Dorland, W. A. N. (1908). The age of mental virility . New York, NY: Century. Elder, G. (1988). Children of the great depression . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Erikson, E. (1982). The life cycle completed . New York, NY: Norton. Graebner, W. (1981). ...

Social Isolation and Loneliness in Old Age

Social Isolation and Loneliness in Old Age   Reference library

Clemens Tesch-Roemer and Oliver Huxhold

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
11,846 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Covinsky, 2012 ). Participants who had reported being lonely at baseline were more likely to develop a decline in activities of daily living (ADL), difficulties with upper extremity tasks, and a decline in mobility 6 years later. A potential explanation for this is the decrease in physical activity due to loneliness ( Hawkley, Thisted, & Cacioppo, 2009 ). In a longitudinal study, loneliness at baseline was associated with reduced physical activity 3 years later, independent of sociodemographic and psychosocial variables. Regarding the relationship between loneliness...

Integrated Theories of Biological Aging

Integrated Theories of Biological Aging   Reference library

Conscience P. Bwiza, Jyung Mean Son, and Changhan Lee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Psychology and Aging

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology
Length:
17,364 words
Illustration(s):
1

...). Inflammation and Aging Inflammation is an immune response that is essential for clearing infection, foreign matters, tissue debris, and wound healing. Such acute inflammation is adaptive and responds to certain events before returning to its resting state ( Serhan, Chang, & Dalli, 2015 ). However, the level of resting inflammatory response increases with age, leading to chronic inflammation that is maladaptive and persistent. Such progressive age-dependent chronic and sterile low-grade inflammation has been referred to as inflammaging ( Franceschi et al.,...

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