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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Death and Dying

Death and Dying   Reference library

Jeffrey M. Jentzen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...role over the death process only to be replaced by bioethicists who directed the physicians’ role. The medicalization of death and the dying process has distanced humans from experiencing the natural cycle of life and death. The evolution of death and dying can be best viewed by the practices related to the care of the body: the changing definition of death, euthanasia, legal ownership and disposal of the body, organ transplantation, end-of-life care, and near-death experiences. Burial Practices. For monotheistic religions, being formed in the image of God...

Machinery and Manufacturing

Machinery and Manufacturing   Reference library

Ross Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...but unchangeable ( David, 1986 ). Bicycles and automobiles. The high-wheel bicycle and the safety bicycle with its equal-size wheels connected by a chain emanated from France and Britain. Produced from the late 1870s, U.S. sales skyrocketed through the late 1890s. The Otto four-cycle engine and Benz automobile were continental innovations patented in the United States. U.S. inventors often aimed at mass markets. Ransom Olds’ Oldsmobile, Henry Leland’s Cadillac, Henry Ford’s Model T, and later closed sedans of Chevrolet and Chrysler were practical and capable...

Rivers As Technological Systems

Rivers As Technological Systems   Reference library

Martin Reuss

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and new turbine designs. All these developments allowed twentieth-century engineers to think in terms of controlling an entire river in ways that their predecessors could not have imagined. Still, it is worthwhile noting that many innovations have been in the details and rest on basic technologies used to transform rivers for thousands of years. Characteristics of Rivers as Technological Systems. The number and kinds of projects and their economic and environmental impacts can significantly differ from one riverine technological system to another. Still,...

Gender and Science

Gender and Science   Reference library

Londa Schiebinger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...science, during which record growth occurred in terms of monies spent, persons trained, and jobs created. This early history of women in U.S. science dispels the myth of inevitable progress: women’s participation cannot be characterized as a march of steady progress but as cycles of advancement and retrenchment. Women’s situation has changed along with the fortunes of war and peace, politics and economies, and climates of opinion. Data Collection. The Soviet Union’s Sputnik launch in 1957 unleashed a frenzy of recruitment into science, fueled by the...

technology in history

technology in history   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...in basic science eventually leads to technological innovation. The belief gained prominence after Vannevar Bush's Science, the Endless Frontier was published immediately after World War II by the United States Office of Scientific Research and Development. Third World science policy makers observe Japan's secret to success in terms of how assumptions about science and technology differ from traditional Western notions. First, Japan avoided costly basic science development, which does not guarantee economic return to society. Instead, Japan imported basic...

science in history

science in history   Reference library

Science, Technology, and Society

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006

...has been one of the categories used to differentiate Europe and North America from the rest of the globe since the Enlightenment and to justify the former's economic global position. Being judged not to have science marked the latter as “savages” and was part of the institutionalization of colonialism. Colonialism/imperialism introduced modern science to the continent of Africa through explorers, military conquest, commercial and political interests, and missionary activities. The first European sciences to be introduced through practice were biological...

Astronomy and Astrophysics

Astronomy and Astrophysics   Reference library

Trudy E. Bell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...observing the Sun at various wavelengths through several 11-year sunspot cycles. NASA spacecraft have flown by and/or orbited all the planets in the solar system ( Beatty et al., 1999 ; Kraemer, 2000 ). For the rocky planets, spacecraft revealed Mercury to have a surface heavily cratered with unusual volcanic structures and a density unexpectedly high and Venus to be a hothouse with a crushing atmosphere of carbon dioxide, with 85 percent of its surface shaped by volcanic activity. Spacecraft showed Mars has gullies and flows of debris suggestive of...

Arabidopsis

Arabidopsis   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,170 words

...condition well known to botanists in other plants. Later, the ancestors reverted to the normal diploid state, but not all of the duplicated genes were lost. More than 3000 components of the genome are control genes, regulating the activity of other genes. For controlling the internal layout of living cells, and activities of their various components, the genes have much in common with those found in animals, although there are distinctive features associated with the cell walls of plants. Bigger differences emerge in the chains of gene control involved in...

Biosphere from space

Biosphere from space   Reference library

Magic Universe: A Grand Tour of Modern Science

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, History of Science
Length:
2,894 words

...architecture of leaves. He concluded that the satellites don't merely map vegetation. From high in the sky they measure, region by region, its light-harvesting capacity. In effect the sensors in space monitor the combined activity in all the leaves of the green chlorophyll pigment. This absorbs the solar energy needed for the basic work of life on the planet, to make sugars from carbon dioxide and water, and release oxygen as a by-product. As plants retain no more chlorophyll than they need, the vegetation index measures the vegetation's rate of growth....

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