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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

basic rest–activity cycle

basic rest–activity cycle n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... restactivity cycle n. A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep . Also called the restactivity cycle . BRAC ...

chronobiology

chronobiology n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... n. The branch of biology concerned with biological rhythms . See biological clock , biological rhythm . See also alpha wave , basic restactivity cycle , beta wave , circadian rhythm , circannual rhythm , delta wave , gamma wave , infradian rhythm , menstrual cycle , sensorimotor rhythm , sleep–wake cycle , suprachiasmatic nucleus , telomere , theta wave , ultradian rhythm , Zeitgeber . [From Greek chronos time + English biology...

biological rhythm

biological rhythm n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...rhythm n. Any periodic, more-or-less regular fluctuation or cycle in a biological system or process that is not wholly under the control of environmental cues but is controlled centrally by a biological clock . It may be an ultradian rhythm such as a circannual rhythm or a menstrual cycle ; a circadian rhythm such as the sleep–wake cycle ; or an infradian rhythm such as an alpha wave , basic restactivity cycle , beta wave , delta wave , gamma wave , sensorimotor rhythm , or theta wave . See also chronobiology , pacemaker...

infradian rhythm

infradian rhythm n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...rhythm n . Any biological rhythm with a period of less than a day. See alpha wave , basic restactivity cycle , beta wave , delta wave , gamma wave , sensorimotor rhythm , theta wave . See also biological clock , chronobiology , Zeitgeber . Compare circadian rhythm , circannual rhythm , ultradian rhythm . [From Latin infra under + dies a...

sleep

sleep n.   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Psychology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...III, and IV NREM sleep respectively. See also basal forebrain , basic restactivity cycle , circadian rhythm , delta sleep-inducing peptide , delta wave , dream ( 1 ) , dyssomnias , hypnagogic image , hypnopompic image , K complex , locus coeruleus , magnocellular nucleus , melatonin , nucleus gigantocellularis , paradoxical sleep , parasomnias , PGO spike , pineal gland , polysomnography , pseudoinsomnia , REM atonia , REM rebound , sleep spindle , sleep–wake cycle , sleepwalking , slow-wave sleep , subcoerulear nucleus...

Physical Activity and Sleep

Physical Activity and Sleep   Reference library

Sayaka Aritake-Okada and Sunao Uchida

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
6,110 words
Illustration(s):
1

...passive, automatic homeostatic cycling between wakefulness and sleep is influenced by several factors including physical activity, which also involves the prior activity in a large network of neurons of the CNS. These activities influence the global tendency of the CNS for sleep–wake oscillation ( Vaynman & Gomez-Pinilla, 2005 ). Physical activity could be a robust stimulus for the autoregulatory global phenomenon that affects the entirety of the sleeper’s physiological mechanisms. Appropriate amounts of physical activity could alter those mechanisms in a...

Relaxation and Recovery in Sport and Performance

Relaxation and Recovery in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Maximilian Pelka and Michael Kellmann

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019

...it is essential to implement appropriate regeneration phases in training regimens that aim for well-being and competitive success. Optimal recovery is a consciously planned activity that matches situational and environmental needs of an athlete in rest and results in regaining an optimal performance state. An appropriate example of a competition setting is multi-stage cycling, as a healthy recovery-stress balance is crucial in these competitions when athletes are exposed to highly stressful circumstances over an extended period of time ( Filho et al., ...

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia

History of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology in Australia   Reference library

Jeffrey Bond and Tony Morris

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
11,488 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and at the South Australian Sports Institute in Adelaide (cricket and cycling). These tanks were used for relaxation training, stress management, injury management, pain management, training recovery, imagery training, and technique modeling. The flotation tanks were also used for basic research into the impact of the flotation environment on the relaxation response and mood states. Biofeedback training was introduced to the AIS sport psychology program in 1982 , with some very basic heart rate and EMG equipment brought to the AIS by its inaugural sport...

Emotional Self-Regulation in Sport and Performance

Emotional Self-Regulation in Sport and Performance   Reference library

Claudio Robazza and Montse C. Ruiz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Medicine and health, Clinical Medicine
Length:
13,178 words
Illustration(s):
3

...on college students engaged on an endurance cycling task ( Bertollo et al., 2015 ). Additional studies in pistol shooting, dart throwing, and race car driving investigating the psychophysiological patterns underlying different types of performance states, such as skin conductance level, skin temperature, breathing rate, heart rate responses, and kinematic patterns, have provided evidence supporting different types of information processing ( Bertollo et al., 2013 ; Filho et al., 2015 ). Electrodermal activity associated with Type 2 and Type 3 performance...

Death and Dying

Death and Dying   Reference library

Jeffrey M. Jentzen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...role over the death process only to be replaced by bioethicists who directed the physicians’ role. The medicalization of death and the dying process has distanced humans from experiencing the natural cycle of life and death. The evolution of death and dying can be best viewed by the practices related to the care of the body: the changing definition of death, euthanasia, legal ownership and disposal of the body, organ transplantation, end-of-life care, and near-death experiences. Burial Practices. For monotheistic religions, being formed in the image of God...

Machinery and Manufacturing

Machinery and Manufacturing   Reference library

Ross Thomson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...but unchangeable ( David, 1986 ). Bicycles and automobiles. The high-wheel bicycle and the safety bicycle with its equal-size wheels connected by a chain emanated from France and Britain. Produced from the late 1870s, U.S. sales skyrocketed through the late 1890s. The Otto four-cycle engine and Benz automobile were continental innovations patented in the United States. U.S. inventors often aimed at mass markets. Ransom Olds’ Oldsmobile, Henry Leland’s Cadillac, Henry Ford’s Model T, and later closed sedans of Chevrolet and Chrysler were practical and capable...

Rivers As Technological Systems

Rivers As Technological Systems   Reference library

Martin Reuss

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...and new turbine designs. All these developments allowed twentieth-century engineers to think in terms of controlling an entire river in ways that their predecessors could not have imagined. Still, it is worthwhile noting that many innovations have been in the details and rest on basic technologies used to transform rivers for thousands of years. Characteristics of Rivers as Technological Systems. The number and kinds of projects and their economic and environmental impacts can significantly differ from one riverine technological system to another. Still,...

Gender and Science

Gender and Science   Reference library

Londa Schiebinger

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...science, during which record growth occurred in terms of monies spent, persons trained, and jobs created. This early history of women in U.S. science dispels the myth of inevitable progress: women’s participation cannot be characterized as a march of steady progress but as cycles of advancement and retrenchment. Women’s situation has changed along with the fortunes of war and peace, politics and economies, and climates of opinion. Data Collection. The Soviet Union’s Sputnik launch in 1957 unleashed a frenzy of recruitment into science, fueled by the...

Astronomy and Astrophysics

Astronomy and Astrophysics   Reference library

Trudy E. Bell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the History of American Science, Medicine, and Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...observing the Sun at various wavelengths through several 11-year sunspot cycles. NASA spacecraft have flown by and/or orbited all the planets in the solar system ( Beatty et al., 1999 ; Kraemer, 2000 ). For the rocky planets, spacecraft revealed Mercury to have a surface heavily cratered with unusual volcanic structures and a density unexpectedly high and Venus to be a hothouse with a crushing atmosphere of carbon dioxide, with 85 percent of its surface shaped by volcanic activity. Spacecraft showed Mars has gullies and flows of debris suggestive of...

biological rhythm

biological rhythm  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Any periodic, more-or-less regular fluctuation or cycle in a biological system or process that is not wholly under the control of environmental cues but is controlled centrally by a biological clock. ...

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