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Overview

basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Bankruptcy

Bankruptcy   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
3,793 words

...interests of other creditors. Origins. Against that background, the first bankruptcy statute was enacted in 1543 , introducing the basic principle of equal division of creditors’ assets in proportion to the amount they were owed. The process was started by written complaint from a creditor. A commissioner appointed by the Lord Chancellor would then identify the debtor’s assets and effect a division among the creditors. This basic idea was developed and refined over the following centuries. The idea that the debtor must have committed an “act of bankruptcy” was...

Regulation

Regulation   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
24,931 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and transportation companies the legal advantages of corporate personality and limited liability; with the other, they mandated capital reserves, sharply restricted corporate activities to those specified in charters, and often set up new state bodies to audit corporate finances. If commercial promise produced a wary embrace of the corporation, the downward side of the business cycle, especially after the Panics of 1837 and 1857 , simultaneously prompted calls for much tighter regulation, as well as proposals to free the business community from regulatory...

African Law, Sub-Saharan

African Law, Sub-Saharan   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
36,117 words
Illustration(s):
11

...calendar and reasserting the unity of the whole community. Circumcision initiated young men as warriors, replacing former warriors now installed as elders. The Nandi of present-day Kenya applied the seven ages of man as a cycle of age-grades, moving through successive stages of childhood, youth, maturity, and responsible eldership as the cycle turned at appropriate intervals with due public ceremony. Such systems sought constructively to mobilize but also contain generational tensions between younger elements seeking change and elders protecting the customs of...

Education and Training

Education and Training   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
14,274 words
Illustration(s):
4

...politicians, and lawyers for the new nation. Students came from across the eastern seaboard, and indeed from beyond the Appalachians, for six to eighteen months to absorb the basic structure of legal training. The school, however, had another important purpose. As John Langbein has shown, it was the notes from the lectures given at Litchfield that ultimately formed the basic textbooks of American law. The Two Streams Merge. By 1820 , there was strong evidence of the merging of the academic and professional streams of legal education and training. Yale...

Chinese Law, History of

Chinese Law, History of   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
46,816 words
Illustration(s):
9

...ranging from imperial edicts to regulations observed in a particular service. The most basic structures of the administrative systems were conserved in the Huidian (collected canons), which despite their title never had the cohesiveness and continuity of the lü . Under the Qing, itemized rules ( zeli ) of the administrative services were gradually appended to the Huidian , which formed a database of regulations covering the wide range of state activity. Though devised to stand in tension with one another, these two poles overlapped in various...

Property

Property   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, History
Length:
35,301 words
Illustration(s):
3

...in land created a means of acquiring the most basic form of wealth for a broad spectrum of Americans, even as the explicit connections between political capacity and proprietorship declined. Gradually and unevenly, proponents of expanded suffrage disentangled property ownership from political rights, arguing that all men are naturally free and equal. If equality and political discretion inhere in the individual rather than in the union of man and land, reformers argued, denial of suffrage was a violation of basic liberties. They drew new lines around political...

History of American Law

History of American Law   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Law
Length:
25,927 words

...the marketplace and to shape a host of social relations. Federalism gave differing scope to their actions, with the states intervening more frequently and forcefully than Congress. In neither instance did the level of activity match the depth of governmental involvement associated with the modern administrative state. Following a burst of activity in the first part of the nineteenth century, legislatively directed promotion and regulation waned while the scope of judicial power broadened. The social consequences of these national economic initiatives affected...

Mishnah

Mishnah   Reference library

Ishay Rosen-Zvi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
9,653 words

...Mishnah as an academic practice and as the composite work. After a discussion of the basic structure of the Mishnah and its content, I will cover the history of its composition. Thereafter I will discuss the various sources of the Mishnaic law and will examine the redaction of the Mishnah by R. Judah the Prince and its transformation from a collection of sources to a final work. There I also survey the various scholarly approaches to the purpose of Rabbi’s redactional activity. This leads into a final discussion that treats the Mishnah synchronically, as a...

Slavery and the Slave Trade

Slavery and the Slave Trade   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
7,148 words

...persisted under different designations or through illicit activities, on what grounds can one say that slavery has effectively come to an end? If enslavement remains an ongoing concern in the absence of official recognition, on what grounds can one meaningfully distinguish “traditional” slavery from analogous forms of behavior? Once one accepts the basic proposition that legal abolition did not mark an effective end to slavery, one must also confront the more difficult task of specifying which activities are sufficiently similar to historical slave systems that...

South American Southern Cone

South American Southern Cone   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,897 words

...the military to detain and try civilians suspected of engaging in subversive activities. When members of the legislature raised questions about restrictions on civil liberties and called for investigations into charges of human rights abuses, the military refused to cooperate and increasingly challenged legislative prerogatives. After a prolonged standoff between the military and the legislature, the military successfully pressured Bordaberry to suspend independent political activity and concentrate control of the government in military hands. On 27 June 1973 ...

Botswana and Lesotho

Botswana and Lesotho   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
5,886 words

...Change 1795–1940 . London: Athlone, 1970. Schapera, Isaac . The Tswana . London: International African Institute, 1953. Sheddick, Vernon George John . The Southern Sotho . London: International African Institute, 1953. Tarantola, Daniel . “ HIV Testing: Breaking the Deadly Cycle. ” Health and Human Rights 8, no. 2 (2005): 37–42. Thamae, Mabusetsa Lenka , and Lori Pottinger , eds. On the Wrong Side of Development: Lessons Learned from the Lesotho Highlands Water Project . Maseru, Lesotho: Transformation Resource Centre, 2006. United Nations Children's...

Torture

Torture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
21,128 words

...that the committee “shall notify the Government … of its intention to carry out a visit,” after which “it may at any time visit any place referred to in Article 2.” In practice the committee issues a list of the countries that it intends to visit as a part of its regular cycle of activities at the start of each year, and those countries are therefore put on notice to expect the committee. The committee then contacts the states concerned a few weeks before a visit, notifying the government of the dates and allowing for practical matters to be addressed. Shortly...

Theology of Law

Theology of Law   Reference library

Joel N. Lohr, Thomas Kazen, and Jonathan Wyn Schofer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
24,573 words

...of God’s support for agriculture and earthly fertility on Sukkot. Rabbinic texts also assert that God’s relations with humans in any given present moment are shaped by the calendar, such that divine judgment and human atonement have patterns and demands connected with the cycles of sacred rituals. The Mishnah’s treatment of Passover includes a long passage that summarizes core elements of the theology of God’s redemption as both a past event known as the Exodus from slavery in Egypt and an ongoing element of God’s relation with observant Jews. This passage...

Federal Government, Executive Branch

Federal Government, Executive Branch   Reference library

David K. Nichols, Richard C. Sawyer, Steven L. Rearden, Pearson Bramblett, Daniel J. Tichenor, David L. Herzberg, Daniel J. Tichenor, Joshua H. Mather, Henry F. Graff, Robert David Johnson, and Jesse Stiller

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
12,762 words

...a small budget and an uncertain relationship to the land-grant universities in the de- velopment of agricultural science. In 1887 the Hatch Act established state agricultural exper-imental stations as institutions for basic research in agriculture-related fields. In the late nineteenth century the USDA began reorganizing its research activities to focus on specific problems, such as livestock diseases. The first new unit was the Bureau of Animal Industry, created in 1884 . With permanent status and funding, an approving interest group (cattle ranchers in this...

Haiti

Haiti   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,568 words

...services, corruption, a dysfunctional judicial system, discriminatory tax collection, environmental degradation, and abusive security forces are cited as contributing factors. Public sector hiring and promotion are often based on political loyalty rather than competence. Cycles of political and human rights crises alternating with brief periods of great hope for change have stifled the healing from trauma, and contributed to demoralization, internal displacement, and migration from Haiti. The absence of a secure and stable environment has discouraged...

Monarchy and Administration

Monarchy and Administration   Reference library

Keith Bodner, Casey D. Elledge, and Anselm C. Hagedorn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Law

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Religion, Law
Length:
16,604 words

...in Jesus research concerns whether evidence such as the royal inscription upon the cross ( Mark 15:26 ; Matt 27:37 ; Luke 24:38 ; John 19:19–23 ) and his crucifixion by the Romans betrays a kind of royal-messianic self-understanding to Jesus’s activity or whether such messianic characterizations rest, instead, with the post-Easter reflection of the early church (Theissen and Merz, 1998 ). Apart from this question, select features of the gospel traditions may present Jesus as critical toward the Herodian aristocracy. A case in point is Jesus’s prohibition...

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