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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Australia

Australia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
15,540 words
Illustration(s):
1

...may be obtained through some of the traditional myths, often expressed in song cycles. These include reference to affection, as well as physical satisfaction and mutual responsibility. The songs make explicit reference to circumcision rituals, to menstruation, semen, and to defloration. One ritualistic means of courtship is reported through the Golbourn Island song cycles ( Berndt 1976 ). In the songs, young girls engage in making figures out of string, the activity causing their breasts to undulate: This and the figures they make are designed to...

malt

malt   Reference library

Thomas Kraus-Weyermann

The Oxford Companion to Beer

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
3,119 words

...alpha- and beta-amylase activity. It is kept at that temperature for about an hour. This wet stewing ensures that enzymatic saccharification takes place inside each kernel. The stewed malt is then finished off in the kiln or it stays in the roaster for finishing. If it is finished in the kiln, it is subjected to a drying cycle at about 90°C (roughly 195°F), which causes the sugars to caramelize into hard, glassy, and unfermentable dextrins. If the stewed malt is finished in the roaster, on the other hand, it is subjected to a drying cycle at perhaps 200°C...

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
10,716 words
Illustration(s):
1

...than any other factor, this activity spurs the imagination. Many times older young people deliberately try to persuade younger ones to try sex. Cousins, in particular, often help set up the first sexual encounters for their younger relatives. Sometimes cousins are the first sexual partners. On a world scale, this pattern is not unusual. It is unlikely, however, that older relatives and friends raised under similar conditions represent a good source of information. Until recently, Papua New Guinea has remained isolated from the rest of the world. Today, Papua...

Nepal

Nepal   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
10,696 words
Illustration(s):
1

...images and messages that can throw a culture into social chaos around sexual values. Another example of the cultural values relating to discussing sexuality came when I was conducting a meeting with adult women living in Kathmandu. My plan was to conduct a brief activity about the menstrual cycle. The professionals with whom I worked recommended that when I was done, I was to apologize to the group for discussing such a personal subject with them. When I apologized after my talk, the group of women forgave me, and then apologized themselves for not knowing...

Outer Space and Antarctica

Outer Space and Antarctica   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
19,114 words
Illustration(s):
2

...control. This effect may increase as the time in space increases because of the progressive deconditioning of the muscles. Sexual activity, thus, might be an ideal part of an exercise program that people would very likely want to do regularly to maintain overall body and sexual fitness. All of the effects on the human sexual response cycle just described provide possible mechanisms for a breakdown at some point in the cycle. Thus, there is the distinct possibility that any of the sexual dysfunctions experienced by men and women on Earth may increase or be...

Turkey

Turkey   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
20,191 words
Illustration(s):
1

...these studies imply that while autoerotic activity is not rare among adolescents and young adults in Turkey, it is, nevertheless, a source of distress. Even among the highly educated, masturbation is not always regarded as an acceptable sexual outlet. Clinical observations and self-report studies with sexually dysfunctional patients in Turkey show that masturbation is more commonly reported by males, while sexual fantasies and autoerotic activities are rarely reported by Turkish females. However, these observations rest on clinical samples and may not reflect...

Cuba

Cuba   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
20,888 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the curriculum and supplemented with extracurricular activities and family education. It is based on the cross-section content system on sexuality included in the system of school subjects. The program is developed through classes, extracurricular activities, and activities with the students' mothers and fathers. These activities are conceived and carried out following an alternative sex education approach, based on the determination of basic educational needs (SANEBAS), through participatory activities and the implementation of action research findings. This...

Philippines

Philippines   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
23,700 words
Illustration(s):
1

...However, there is one basic characteristic: the belief in the spirits of their ancestors who influence the living in every conceivable sphere of life and apply rewards and sanctions where appropriate. These religions also have lesser gods and deities with different powers related to physical health and fertility. The majority of tribal peoples believe that the first woman came from the “split” of the bamboo node, a kind of a tropical, tall, and slender palm with sequenced “nodes” in the trunk. Some tribal customs allow sexual activity as early as puberty,...

Ghana

Ghana   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
12,900 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in the 2000 presidential elections by the current President, John Agyekum Kufuor . 1. Basic Sexological Premises A. Character of Gender Roles In Ghana, the human world is basically a “man's world.” Women are in a subordinate position in terms of decision making within the household. Women work both inside and outside the home. At home, they are responsible for mothering, cooking, washing, food storage, and processing. Outside, they participate in agricultural activities and farm different crops, but few hold titles to land. It is in the sphere of trading...

Colombia

Colombia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
17,228 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of comment by L. Raibin )] 1. Basic Sexological Premises Bernardo Useche A. The Cultural Legacy Observing pieces of Pre-Colombian art and the descriptions of the historians of the Indies (when the colonists arrived), one finds strong evidence that the majority of the aboriginal tribes inhabiting the Colombian territory freely practiced the pleasurable side of sexuality. Among the art pieces of the time, one encounters representations of all possible sexual attitudes: masturbation, heterosexual activity, oral sex, homosexual activity, and bestiality. With the...

United States of America

United States of America   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
234,746 words
Illustration(s):
2

...be targeted. 3. Deliver and consistently reinforce a clear message about abstaining from sexual activity and/or using condoms or other forms of contraception. This appears to be one of the most important characteristics that distinguish effective from ineffective programs. 4. Provide basic, accurate information about the risks of teen sexual activity and about ways to avoid inter-course or use methods of protection against pregnancy and STDs. 5. Include activities that address social pressures that influence sexual behavior. 6. Provide examples of and...

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
12,972 words
Illustration(s):
1

...they can ever be incorporated into the nation-state of Sri Lanka as anything more than second-class citizens. 1. Basic Sexological Premises A. Character of Gender Roles All researchers agree that Sri Lanka is a patriarchal country, however, the degree of patriarchy is in dispute. Many suggest that Sri Lanka is not nearly as patriarchal as other countries in South Asia; Anju Malhotra and Amy Ong Tsui write that, “in contrast to much of the rest of South Asia, Sri Lanka has a cultural heritage of relative gender equality in terms of later marriages,...

French Polynesia

French Polynesia   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
20,796 words
Illustration(s):
1

...cultural epicenters of Eastern Polynesia ( Goldman 1970 , xxvii). Robert C. Suggs suggests that these two archipelagos were centers of population dispersion for the other islands in Eastern Polynesia ( 1960 , 107, 137). 1. Basic Sexological Premises A. Character of Gender Roles Because cultures operate as integrated systems, the basic sexological premises, such as gender roles, social status, general concepts, and constructs of sexuality and love, must be considered within the broader Polynesian cultural context. Research on the status of women in...

India

India   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
18,655 words
Illustration(s):
1

...with prostitutes, friends, or relatives of the opposite or same sex, to covert observation of the sexual activities of others, and to masturbation. Reddy and his colleagues, in a 1983 study of young people, found that the sample youth had their first sexual experience between the ages of 15 and 24 years. Homosexual activities were also reported in this study: 38% of women in the sample reported that their first sexual activity had been with a partner of the same sex. The Family Planning Foundation of India undertook a study in 1990 among...

Tanzania

Tanzania   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
11,262 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Tabora, and Mbeya regions than in the rest of the country. (Compare with contraceptive use described below.) Contraceptive Use Rates of contraceptive use are inconsistent with awareness of the methods. Overall, 29.3% of men are more likely to use the methods than women (22.3%). Modern methods are more used than the traditional ones. The most popular methods are condoms, the calendar or rhythm method, pill, and injection. The discrepancy between knowledge and use calls for more promotion of family planning activities in Tanzania (National Bureau of Statistics...

Thailand

Thailand   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
37,958 words
Illustration(s):
1

...virtuous lives, which means refraining from and disapproving of sexual indulgences, in order to keep their demerit to a minimum. With no access to formal Buddhist scholastic activities, it is unlikely that women would be able to discern which virtues and sins were defined by the Theravada values and which by the local gender construction (see discussion of kulasatrii in Section 1A, Basic Sexological Premises, Ideal Gender Images). Further, because women believe that their strongest merit is to be a mother of a son who is ordained, the pressure on women to...

Argentina

Argentina   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
28,310 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in several chapters, these four basic values are described in detail in Section 1A, Basic Sexological Premises, in the chapter on Puerto Rico in this Encyclopedia . ( End of comment by R. T. Francoeur )] Since 1953 , provincialism has made repeated attempts to regain the dominant position it held before 1853 , but it was often infiltrated by foreign fascist and Nazi influences. These attempts, beside damaging the country's cultural and economic development, succeeded in drastically changing the image of Argentina in the rest of the world. David Rock 's...

Bahrain

Bahrain   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
35,139 words
Illustration(s):
1

...tourists from the Gulf and around the world visiting Bahrain. These current commercial activities, and the past contact with traders and people from different cultures for centuries, has given Bahrain a unique cultural pattern and a cosmopolitan air. The latter has not been seen in other Gulf cities, like Dubai, until recently. The people of Bahrain and their respect for, and tolerance of, different cultural values makes Bahrain unique in many ways from its neighbors. 1. Basic Sexological Premises There is a dearth of documented data regarding the nature of...

Vietnam

Vietnam   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
29,265 words
Illustration(s):
1

...could not be reached for comment (Reuters April 7, 1997 ). Sexual encounters between male adolescents may be facilitated by socially sanctioned close physical contacts considered “normal” between males, such as holding hands and resting or sleeping close together in the same bed. As far as the prevailing sexual activities, mutual masturbation and fellatio, are concerned, there does not appear to be any strongly developed sense of playing a masculine or feminine sexual role of the kind as is often found in other societies where anal intercourse is more...

Netherlands and the Autonomous Dutch Antilles

Netherlands and the Autonomous Dutch Antilles   Reference library

The Continuum Complete International Encyclopedia of Sexuality

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Society and culture
Length:
26,260 words
Illustration(s):
1

...for ovarian (29), cervical (24), endometrial (12), and vulvar (4) cancers. Posttreatment follow-up ranged from six months to seven years. Results showed a decrease in sexual activity (59%) and intimacy (22%) with an increase in need for intimacy (19%), emotional support (30%), and open communication (23%). In addition, 33% reported a negative change in their partner's sexual activity. Many women had the impression that, although their partners needed emotional support during their illness, they did not receive this help. Intimacy, emotional support, and open...

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