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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

hearing

hearing   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
3,446 words
Illustration(s):
4

...(see the lower part of Fig. 3). A sine wave may also be called a pure tone or simple tone, since it has a very ‘pure’ or ‘clean’ quality, like that of a tuning fork or the Greenwich time signal. For a pure tone the repetition rate, the number of complete cycles per second, is the frequency. The unit of one cycle per second is called the hertz (abbreviated Hz). The Greenwich time signal has a frequency of 1,000 Hz. The highest frequency we can hear varies from 16,000 to 20,000 Hz in young adults, but tends to decrease with increasing age. The lowest frequency...

Death and Aesthetics

Death and Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,583 words

...This essay explores the difficulties artists have had, historically and in principle, representing in their work issues or emotions related to death. Dying is a solitary, highly individual, and incommunicable event, perhaps the most private and most intimate moment in the life cycle of the human subject. Whether it marks, in religious terms, an exchange whereby the dissolution of the body is coterminous with an entry into a new spiritual existence and thus the return to divinity, or whether, in the more secular encoding of what Sigmund Freud calls the death...

Autonomy

Autonomy   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,666 words

...and gallery symbolize. Understood in these terms, the aim of aesthetic autonomy is not to isolate artists or to separate art from the rest of life, but to protect art and artists from political interference. The idea that art deserves special protections is traditionally defended by appealing to the special character of art's formal properties, but it is also possible to defend on straightforward political grounds. The basic idea here is that works of art deserve protection not because they are detached from life or disconnected from social forces, but...

Benjamin, Walter

Benjamin, Walter   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
9,945 words

...application of surrealism—and thereby its sublation” (ibid., p. 505). The diverse aspects of Surrealism's contribution to Benjamin's high capitalist cycle of production all turn around Benjamin's interest in the fundamental Surrealist moment of “unchaining” ( désenchaînement ) or, as it was also called, the “encounter,” to use the term of the movement's leader, André Breton . In this moment, Surrealist activity succeeded in dismantling some aspect of the dominant order (whether ideological, aesthetic, political, or epistemological) by bringing together pieces...

Politics and Aesthetics

Politics and Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
20,958 words
Illustration(s):
2

...than from the state. Rawls's apparent readiness to abandon support for culture to the “private” sphere and to the activities of individual associations within society has provoked a variety of criticisms. Joseph Raz , for example, has argued that such a policy would undermine the chances of survival of “many cherished aspects of our culture” (Raz, 1986 ). According to Raz, society as a whole must shoulder the burden of preserving certain basic perfectionistic ideals or risk total cultural impoverishment. Amy Gutmann has argued, in an extensive study of the...

Film

Film   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
18,440 words
Illustration(s):
2

...the cycle as a favorite venue for some of Hollywood's most gifted cinematographers and technicians, many of whom ( John Alton , Rudolph Maté ) were European émigrés. The earliest films noir were generally photographed on studio sets and depicted a darkened and claustrophobic city populated by indifferent strangers. This transposition of the iconography of French and German cinema (if not representations of the metropolis associated with the naturalist novel and photographic modernism) to an American context remains among the film cycle's most...

Metaphor

Metaphor   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
14,764 words
Illustration(s):
1

...view has been subject to devastating critiques that have led to a complete reappraisal of the topic. We now recognize metaphor to be a fundamental principle of human understanding that operates in all forms of our symbolic activity. Consequently, a person's view of metaphor has become a divining rod with which to discover his most basic philosophical commitments about the mind, knowledge, and language. The received view that has dominated the Western tradition is both objectivist and literalist in character. It is made up of related views about the nature of...

Bauhaus

Bauhaus   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,567 words

...their material and technical sobriety, utilitarian rigor, and systematic use of repetition. Moreover, these projects exemplified the proposition that aesthetic practice was a form of social production that could actively intervene in the organizational structure of the productive cycle. Meyer's anti-aesthetic and antihumanist depletion of the object of bourgeois values aimed at sublating art into life, while self-reflexively reinscribing traces of production into the material presence of the object. As the political tide in the Weimar Republic continued to turn...

Philosophy

Philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
15,331 words

...purpose, for example—or some important aspect of life (how to live well, what is “right” or “wrong,” “true” or “false”). To philosophize is to engage in the intellectual activities of fashioning such conceptions and to share the conceptions with others through various modes of communication, normally oral expressions or writing. Producing and sharing such conceptions are essential activities that must be taken up by some individuals within all self-reproducing sociocultural collectivities that endeavor to persist across success generations. Historically,...

Indian Aesthetics

Indian Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,326 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the performing arts, lifts one out of the particularity of one's own time and place. The model seems to be very much that of the phenomenal personality giving way to the knowledge of the Self (ātman) , which is, eternally, pure consciousness and bliss, enduring through the cycles of rebirth that involvement in the world of ethical causality and consequences, or karma , propels. At times the aesthetic experience has been declared to be an analogue of spiritual transcendence, while at other times it is identified with it. Even in this century when...

Aristotle

Aristotle   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,372 words

...Some two hundred works were attributed to him in antiquity, most of which do not survive. Among the works on poetry attributed to him were On Poets; Treatise on the Art of Poetry; Homeric Problems; Poetics; Victories at the Dionysia; On Tragedies; Didaskaliae; Hesiodic Problems; Cycle on Poets; Problems from Archilochus, Euripides, Choerilus; Poetical Problems; Poetical Explanations . (See catalog of Aristotle's works in Barnes's Oxford translation.) Aside from some fragments, the only one of these works to survive is the first book of the Poetics ....

Data Visualization

Data Visualization   Reference library

Amber Frid-Jimenez and Joseph Dahmen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,205 words

...ownership can be especially problematic when it is collected without the knowledge or consent of users. Basic activities such as browsing the Internet, visiting social media sites, and using cell phones provide a stream of data to a second layer of less visible technologies. For instance, web trackers persistently log and store data about users’ activities online, forming unique virtual profiles through the aggregation and analysis of these activities. These virtual profiles are combined with others to form networks of interactions that can be analyzed for a...

Death

Death   Reference library

Elisabeth Bronfen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,822 words

.... This essay explores the difficulties artists have had, historically and in principle, representing in their work issues or emotions related to death. Dying is a solitary, highly individual, and incommunicable event, perhaps the most private and most intimate moment in the life cycle of the human subject. Whether it marks, in religious terms, an exchange whereby the dissolution of the body is coterminous with an entry into a new spiritual existence and thus the return to divinity, or whether, in the more secular encoding of what Sigmund Freud calls the death...

Autonomy

Autonomy   Reference library

Casey Haskins, Peter Bürger, Mary Devereaux, and K. Michael Hays

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,347 words

...and gallery symbolize. Understood in these terms, the aim of aesthetic autonomy is not to isolate artists or to separate art from the rest of life, but to protect art and artists from political interference. The idea that art deserves special protections is traditionally defended by appealing to the special character of art’s formal properties, but it is also possible to defend on straightforward political grounds. The basic idea here is that works of art deserve protection not because they are detached from life or disconnected from social forces, but...

Film

Film   Reference library

Noël Carroll, Paul Messaris, Carl Plantinga, Edward Dimendberg, David Bordwell, and Stephen Prince

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
17,115 words
Illustration(s):
1

...established the cycle as a favorite venue for some of Hollywood’s most gifted cinematographers and technicians, many of whom (John Alton, Rudolph Maté) were European émigrés. The earliest films noir were generally photographed on studio sets and depicted a darkened and claustrophobic city populated by indifferent strangers. This transposition of the iconography of French and German cinema (if not representations of the metropolis associated with the naturalist novel and photographic modernism) to an American context remains among the film cycle’s most decisive...

Benjamin, Walter

Benjamin, Walter   Reference library

Max Pensky, Margaret Cohen, and Samuel Weber

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,578 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the “cycle of production” that was to occupy him from the late 1920s until his death in 1940 (Benjamin, 1994 , p. 322). In this cycle, Benjamin sought to untangle the interrelations in high capitalist modernity among economic modes of production, aesthetics, politics, technology, mass culture, and everyday life, including people’s fantasies and fears. Benjamin understood high capitalism predominantly in Frankfurt Marxist terms, dating it to the growth of industrial capitalism and consumer culture in Europe during the nineteenth century. Benjamin’s cycle on...

Latin American Aesthetics

Latin American Aesthetics   Reference library

María Herrera, Elizabeth Millán, Hugo Moreno, Andrea Giunta, Tamara Stuby, and Rachel Weiss

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,176 words
Illustration(s):
6

...imagination is active in each realm of value study to conclude that the value of all values is aesthetic value, for only aesthetic value is sovereign, autonomous. Truth, Deústua goes on to explain, has instrumental value; but beauty has final value, and aesthetic activity is absolutely free activity insofar as it is the only realm of value where the laws set are not set to coerce, but rather to guide. In commenting on the distinction between truth and beauty, we see where Deústua is going with his line that the freedom of the aesthetic realm is freer than the...

Metaphor

Metaphor   Reference library

Mark Johnson, Josef Stern, Carl R. Hausman, David Summers, Samuel C. Wheeler III, and James Grant

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
18,932 words
Illustration(s):
1

...but in all forms of symbolic activity. Human beings are metaphoric animals whose experience, thought, and symbolic communication are, at least in part, the product of deep metaphoric processes. [ See also Aquinas, Thomas ; Aristotle ; Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm ; and Ricoeur, Paul .] Bibliography Aristotle . Poetics . Translated by Ingram Bywater . In The Basic Works of Aristotle , edited by Richard McKeon . New York: Random House, 1941. Aristotle . Rhetoric . Translated by W. Rhys Roberts . In The Basic Works of Aristotle , edited by...

Bauhaus

Bauhaus   Reference library

Detlef Mertins

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,652 words
Illustration(s):
2

...their material and technical sobriety, utilitarian rigor, and systematic use of repetition. Moreover, these projects exemplified the proposition that aesthetic practice was a form of social production that could actively intervene in the organizational structure of the productive cycle. Meyer’s anti-aesthetic and antihumanist depletion of the object of bourgeois values aimed at sublating art into life, while self-reflexively reinscribing traces of production into the material presence of the object. As the political tide in the Weimar Republic continued to turn...

Indian Aesthetics

Indian Aesthetics   Reference library

David L. Gitomer and V. K. Chari

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
11,098 words
Illustration(s):
1

...lifts one out of the particularity of one’s own time and place. The model seems to be parallel and even allied to that of the phenomenal personality giving way to the knowledge of the Self ( ātman ), which is, eternally, pure consciousness and bliss, and which endures through the cycles of rebirth that involvement in the world of ethical causality and consequences, or karma , propels. At times the aesthetic experience has been declared to be an analogue of spiritual transcendence, while at other times it is identified with it. Even in this century when...

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