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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Mbuti Dance

Mbuti Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
760 words

...as in the reproductive cycle, which is echoed in dance movements. As if to regenerate the cycle interrupted by the death, the molimo dance emphasizes the separate but equally necessary roles of male and female in creating life. The men build a sacred fire as they dance and then, with a movement imitating the act of copulation, fan it into a blaze. The women slowly and deliberately dance through the fire, scattering the burning logs, which the men once again build into a blaze. At any moment, the women can stop the activity of the men— “killing the hunt...

Sword Dance

Sword Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
1,055 words

...locally recognizable and significant aesthetic focus to general festival activity. The long-sword dance is performed in and around Yorkshire by six or eight men wearing quasi-military or uniform costumes decked with rosettes and ribbons; each man carries a dancing sword, a thirty- to forty-inch (about one meter) lath of steel with a fixed, wooden handle. The stepping is a rhythmic, slightly dotted, running step using any 4/4, 2/2, or 6/8 tune that can be played at a moderate pace. The basic figure from which the others start is a wide, closed ring circling...

Ukraine

Ukraine   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
3,919 words

...newer style of dance connected with the Cossack baroque. The whirling couple dances (many polka derivatives, the waltz), quadrille-forms (kateryna, lintsei) and new improvisatory dance styles (rock-and-roll) are common in all parts of Ukraine. This basic historical pattern correlates with the rest of Europe. Geographic boundaries did not limit the spread of dance in Ukraine; shifting political boundaries often allowed direct contact with western Europe, Russia, the Caucasus, and Asia Minor. Common dance elements can therefore be observed with neighbors...

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
5,435 words

...dance utilize the same basic movement but differ according to the number of performers, spatial arrangement of dancers in the longhouse, costume, accompanying instruments, and type of song. As a result of government and Christian missionary pressure, Kaluli ceremonialism began to decline by the 1970s. Gisalo was performed for the last time in 1984 . Ilib kuwo: and fragments of ko:luba, heyalo , or gisalo are now performed only for local celebrations of Papua New Guinea's Independence Day (16 September). The basic Kaluli dance motion, an...

Korea

Korea   Reference library

Lee Du-hyon

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
7,848 words

...tribes until the third century ce : “In the fifth month, they sacrifice to spirits; all day and night, without rest, they sing, dance and drink wine.” In these ancient rituals dedicated to deities, held before the outset of farm work and after the agricultural cycle was completed, labor and the arts rose from a common source and existed in harmony. Continuously handed down through succeeding generations, the traditions came to form the basic character of Korean culture; thus the Korean dances of folk rites, folk games, farmers' festivals, and masked dance...

Music For Dance

Music For Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
29,477 words

...line dance of the Levant, recognizable step formations are found that identify its ethnic or geographic origins. The dabkah consists of repeated cycles or connected climactic episodes. Each of these cycles begins with a passage in which the accompanying wind instrument plays the tune of a dance song. It is followed by verses of the song sung by one of the dance participants, with choral responses from the rest of the dancers. This exchange then leads to the zakhkhah phase, which features repetitions of highly accentuated musical motifs and animated and...

Indonesia

Indonesia   Reference library

Garrett Kam

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
23,884 words

...performers derive their main income from their artistic activity. Dance or music specialists who train a performance group from a village other than their own are usually paid in kind or in services. For basic income and material sustenance, performers, like everyone else, work as rice farmers, craftsmen, chauffeurs, schoolteachers, and so on. Training and rehearsing are generally sporadic, preceding specific ceremonies or events. Older dancers instruct the younger ones, who are familiar with the basic form and technique from having watched the dance over the...

Podbrey, Maurice

Podbrey, Maurice (25 April 1934)   Reference library

The Continuum Companion to Twentieth Century Theatre

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Performing arts, Theatre
Length:
6,144 words

...the political, two stories telling of the quest for the ideal that is betrayed by the way in which the quest is pursued. And so on. As with all playwrights, so each of my 37 plays had a different birth. And though two have historical settings (in which I did not live), and the cycle of One Woman Plays is about women and I am not a woman, and Their Very Own and Golden City is about an architect which I never was, yet none of them strays far from autobiography. The Marketplace How do playwrights sell their work? Well, it depends upon the kind of play they...

Asian Dance Traditions

Asian Dance Traditions   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
17,255 words

...mask with bulging eyes. Apparently basic to all forms of dance in both Java and Bali is an ancient form of dance drama known as gambuh . This dance-theater form was imported to Bali from the kingdoms of East Java during the golden age of the Majapahit empire in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The gambuh dialogue is still sung and spoken in fifteenth-century Javanese, but the attendants translate the lofty thoughts of their noble masters into colloquial Balinese. The literature is drawn from the Panji cycle of stories, from the Javanese...

Great Britain

Great Britain   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
31,844 words

...the same sequence of figures, engaging the third and fourth couples, with the original second couple at rest at the top of the set. The sequence was then repeated until all couples had danced at each position. The progression feature allowed each couple to dance with all the others in both a lead and a supporting role. The technique of execution was arbitrary for the most part, subject to current dancing styles, although Playford described some basic movements. When dancing country dances set to the Scottish reel tunes, Scots presumably used the setting and...

India

India   Reference library

Betty True Jones

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
14,430 words

...gives all the forms a basic unity and continuity. According to Indian thought, the universe is eternal yet in constant flux, the parts merely emanations of the whole. Everything is constantly being born, growing, and dying. All matter is composed of the five basic elements of fire, water, earth, space, and sky; humans are but a part of nature, responding to it rather than dominating it. Like plants or animals, humans develop from a seed in the womb, grow to maturity, and in turn produce the seeds of new life. So the cycle continues without beginning or...

Native American Dance

Native American Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
16,648 words

...running step. Next the female shell shakers, wearing terrapin or tin-can leg rattles, enter in alternate positions behind the men, using a touch-step or stamp-step. The rest of the male and female dancers then join in, alternately, executing the dance steps initiated by the leader. Several songs then follow, punctuated with shouts and slower steps between the songs in the cycle. At certain high points in each song, the leader addresses the fire—with a quarter turn toward the fire, he bends over at a forty-five-degree angle from the waist and moves his...

Social Dance

Social Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
12,899 words

...de contredances , 1706 ). Because of their relative simplicity, country dances and contredanses required little or no preparation outside the ballroom. Only the first two couples who began the action needed to know the figures; the rest of the company could—and was expected to—learn each dance simply by observing the activity at the top. Between the virtuoso performance pieces and the figure dances for a large company fall the country dances for a set number of performers. Four in a square, six in a circle or in longways formation, and eight in a circle or a...

Greece

Greece   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
12,087 words

...be widely performed. By far the most common dance from is the syrtós . The name indicates a drawing action and reflects the basic motion of a line of dancers being drawn forward by the lead dancer. The term syrtós has been found in an ancient inscription, but there is no indication of how it was danced in antiquity. In modern Greece it has become a generic name for a dance performed in an open circle with a walklike step. The basic syrtós is in 2/4 meter, with a sequence of one long and two short steps to the right. The leader has freedom to improvise and...

Russia

Russia   Reference library

Galina V. Inozemtseva, and Elena G. Fedorenko

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
28,293 words

...a boyfriend. All these activities led to dancing. Many of the festivities were linked to water or fire. There were also occasions when the maidens, wearing long white dresses and with garlands in their hair, would bathe in the river. During the bathing festivities (kupalski) , maidens and youths danced around a bonfire and jumped over the flames. Costume parties were also held in the spring. People walked on stilts while representing animals, such as pigs and horses, or they burned scarecrows in the bonfires. These activities, too, led to dancing. The...

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