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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

mélodie

mélodie   Reference library

Leslie Orrey and Roger Nichols

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
942 words

...to Gounod's basic model. Fauré's early songs remain close to the romance , but in such a mélodie as Automne ( 1878 ) the regular rhythms are already threatening rather than consoling. His 17 settings of Paul Verlaine , made between 1887 and 1894 , wonderfully mirror the poet's elegant, melancholy languor and, in the cycle La Bonne Chanson ( 1892–4 ), his ability to break out into joy. Such later cycles as La Chanson d'Ève ( 1906–10 ) and Le Jardin clos ( 1914 ) show Fauré's harmony at its most elusive, but in two final cycles, Mirages (...

Acoustics

Acoustics   Reference library

Carleen M. Hutchins, J. Woodhouse, Carleen M. Hutchins, Daniel W. Martin, Stephen Birkett, Anne Beetem Acker, Arthur H. Benade, Murray Campbell, Robert W. Pyle, Thomas D. Rossing, and Johan Sundberg

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
23,637 words
Illustration(s):
20

...force must lie within a certain range. Below the lower limit the Helmholtz motion gives way to one in which the string slips relative to the bow more than once per cycle, producing what is usually described as ‘surface sound’. Above the upper limit the arrival of the Helmholtz corner is insufficient to ‘unstick’ the string from the bow, the note ceases to be exactly repetitive from cycle to cycle, and the result is no longer a musical tone but a raucous ‘crunch’. To bow nearer to the bridge ( sul ponticello ) the player must press harder and control the force...

printing and publishing of music

printing and publishing of music   Reference library

J. M. Thomson and John Wagstaff

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
8,785 words

...the shape of the note-head and the other elements, such as the thickness and angle of the stem, and the shape of the tails and braces. The clefs, rests, and expression marks such as slurs and phrasing, even the thickness of the staves, make up a complex pictorial and typographical unity. (a) Music type: Music type is produced by the same technique as is used for the letters of the alphabet. The design for a note, rest, or clef is cut on to a punch, usually made of steel. A matrix is produced by striking the punch into a small metal bar, usually copper, which...

Violin

Violin   Reference library

David D. Boyden, Peter Walls, Peter Holman, Karel Moens, Robin Stowell, Peter Cooke, and Alastair Dick

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
22,677 words
Illustration(s):
10

...in a number of basic features from their modern counterparts. The neck projects straight out from the body so that its upper edge continues the line of the belly’s rim. The neck is affixed by nails (or occasionally screws) through the top-block rather than mortised into it as in modern instruments. The fingerboard is wedge-shaped and shorter than the modern fingerboard. Bridges were cut to a more open pattern and were very slightly lower. The bass-bar was shorter and lighter and the soundpost thinner. Violins (and violas) lacked chin rests. The tone of these...

opera

opera   Reference library

Denis Arnold, Nicholas Temperley, Geoffrey Norris, Paul Griffiths, Nicholas Temperley, and Nicholas Temperley

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
21,662 words

...music of other groups can be heard with greater or lesser clarity, and in which the dreamlike vision is several times interrupted by worrying absurdities. If such works appear thoroughly untraditional, however, Stockhausen may be seen to be emulating an earlier master in his cycle of music-theatre works, Licht , intended to occupy the seven evenings of a week, launched with Donnerstag ( 1981 ). A younger generation of German composers has taken a radical view of the medium, creating several works which have achieved international success; they include ...

Organ

Organ   Reference library

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
67,540 words
Illustration(s):
11

...restoration workshops at the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, has added to the knowledge of the Italian organ and to the preservation of its heritage. 11 . The organ of J.S. Bach. In many ways the organs of Bach’s main area of activity, Thuringia, Weimar, and Leipzig, showed the same kind of influences as his music: a basic German traditionalism tempered with French colour and Italian fluency. Neither the organ nor the music was so local in origin or so independent of other regional ideas as was usually the case elsewhere, even in the mid-18th century....

Mbuti Dance

Mbuti Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
760 words

...as in the reproductive cycle, which is echoed in dance movements. As if to regenerate the cycle interrupted by the death, the molimo dance emphasizes the separate but equally necessary roles of male and female in creating life. The men build a sacred fire as they dance and then, with a movement imitating the act of copulation, fan it into a blaze. The women slowly and deliberately dance through the fire, scattering the burning logs, which the men once again build into a blaze. At any moment, the women can stop the activity of the men— “killing the hunt...

Sword Dance

Sword Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
1,055 words

...locally recognizable and significant aesthetic focus to general festival activity. The long-sword dance is performed in and around Yorkshire by six or eight men wearing quasi-military or uniform costumes decked with rosettes and ribbons; each man carries a dancing sword, a thirty- to forty-inch (about one meter) lath of steel with a fixed, wooden handle. The stepping is a rhythmic, slightly dotted, running step using any 4/4, 2/2, or 6/8 tune that can be played at a moderate pace. The basic figure from which the others start is a wide, closed ring circling...

Ukraine

Ukraine   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
3,919 words

...newer style of dance connected with the Cossack baroque. The whirling couple dances (many polka derivatives, the waltz), quadrille-forms (kateryna, lintsei) and new improvisatory dance styles (rock-and-roll) are common in all parts of Ukraine. This basic historical pattern correlates with the rest of Europe. Geographic boundaries did not limit the spread of dance in Ukraine; shifting political boundaries often allowed direct contact with western Europe, Russia, the Caucasus, and Asia Minor. Common dance elements can therefore be observed with neighbors...

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
5,435 words

...dance utilize the same basic movement but differ according to the number of performers, spatial arrangement of dancers in the longhouse, costume, accompanying instruments, and type of song. As a result of government and Christian missionary pressure, Kaluli ceremonialism began to decline by the 1970s. Gisalo was performed for the last time in 1984 . Ilib kuwo: and fragments of ko:luba, heyalo , or gisalo are now performed only for local celebrations of Papua New Guinea's Independence Day (16 September). The basic Kaluli dance motion, an...

Korea

Korea   Reference library

Lee Du-hyon

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
7,848 words

...tribes until the third century ce : “In the fifth month, they sacrifice to spirits; all day and night, without rest, they sing, dance and drink wine.” In these ancient rituals dedicated to deities, held before the outset of farm work and after the agricultural cycle was completed, labor and the arts rose from a common source and existed in harmony. Continuously handed down through succeeding generations, the traditions came to form the basic character of Korean culture; thus the Korean dances of folk rites, folk games, farmers' festivals, and masked dance...

Music For Dance

Music For Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
29,477 words

...line dance of the Levant, recognizable step formations are found that identify its ethnic or geographic origins. The dabkah consists of repeated cycles or connected climactic episodes. Each of these cycles begins with a passage in which the accompanying wind instrument plays the tune of a dance song. It is followed by verses of the song sung by one of the dance participants, with choral responses from the rest of the dancers. This exchange then leads to the zakhkhah phase, which features repetitions of highly accentuated musical motifs and animated and...

Indonesia

Indonesia   Reference library

Garrett Kam

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
23,884 words

...performers derive their main income from their artistic activity. Dance or music specialists who train a performance group from a village other than their own are usually paid in kind or in services. For basic income and material sustenance, performers, like everyone else, work as rice farmers, craftsmen, chauffeurs, schoolteachers, and so on. Training and rehearsing are generally sporadic, preceding specific ceremonies or events. Older dancers instruct the younger ones, who are familiar with the basic form and technique from having watched the dance over the...

Sociology of music

Sociology of music   Reference library

John Shepherd and Kyle Devine

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
10,553 words

...Marx's was critical, understanding tension and conflict as the basic engines of social process, as well as deeply historical, with a driving vision of the redress of social injustice. Nevertheless, these sociologies shared two important characteristics: they assumed the priority of society over the individual, and they were concerned with uncovering and understanding dynamics considered basic to social process. Weber's sociology, by contrast, was motivated less by a desire to provide a basic explanation for the dynamics of social process than to understand...

Asian Dance Traditions

Asian Dance Traditions   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
17,255 words

...mask with bulging eyes. Apparently basic to all forms of dance in both Java and Bali is an ancient form of dance drama known as gambuh . This dance-theater form was imported to Bali from the kingdoms of East Java during the golden age of the Majapahit empire in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The gambuh dialogue is still sung and spoken in fifteenth-century Javanese, but the attendants translate the lofty thoughts of their noble masters into colloquial Balinese. The literature is drawn from the Panji cycle of stories, from the Javanese...

Great Britain

Great Britain   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
31,844 words

...the same sequence of figures, engaging the third and fourth couples, with the original second couple at rest at the top of the set. The sequence was then repeated until all couples had danced at each position. The progression feature allowed each couple to dance with all the others in both a lead and a supporting role. The technique of execution was arbitrary for the most part, subject to current dancing styles, although Playford described some basic movements. When dancing country dances set to the Scottish reel tunes, Scots presumably used the setting and...

India

India   Reference library

Betty True Jones

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
14,430 words

...gives all the forms a basic unity and continuity. According to Indian thought, the universe is eternal yet in constant flux, the parts merely emanations of the whole. Everything is constantly being born, growing, and dying. All matter is composed of the five basic elements of fire, water, earth, space, and sky; humans are but a part of nature, responding to it rather than dominating it. Like plants or animals, humans develop from a seed in the womb, grow to maturity, and in turn produce the seeds of new life. So the cycle continues without beginning or...

Native American Dance

Native American Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
16,648 words

...running step. Next the female shell shakers, wearing terrapin or tin-can leg rattles, enter in alternate positions behind the men, using a touch-step or stamp-step. The rest of the male and female dancers then join in, alternately, executing the dance steps initiated by the leader. Several songs then follow, punctuated with shouts and slower steps between the songs in the cycle. At certain high points in each song, the leader addresses the fire—with a quarter turn toward the fire, he bends over at a forty-five-degree angle from the waist and moves his...

Social Dance

Social Dance   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
12,899 words

...de contredances , 1706 ). Because of their relative simplicity, country dances and contredanses required little or no preparation outside the ballroom. Only the first two couples who began the action needed to know the figures; the rest of the company could—and was expected to—learn each dance simply by observing the activity at the top. Between the virtuoso performance pieces and the figure dances for a large company fall the country dances for a set number of performers. Four in a square, six in a circle or in longways formation, and eight in a circle or a...

Greece

Greece   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
12,087 words

...be widely performed. By far the most common dance from is the syrtós . The name indicates a drawing action and reflects the basic motion of a line of dancers being drawn forward by the lead dancer. The term syrtós has been found in an ancient inscription, but there is no indication of how it was danced in antiquity. In modern Greece it has become a generic name for a dance performed in an open circle with a walklike step. The basic syrtós is in 2/4 meter, with a sequence of one long and two short steps to the right. The leader has freedom to improvise and...

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