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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Italy

Italy   Reference library

Giorgio Rochat, Lucio Ceva (Intelligence), and Tr. John Gooch

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
19,646 words
Illustration(s):
2

...(six battalions in all), and motorized artillery. Light divisions ( celeri ) consisted of two regiments of cavalry, one of bersaglieri on trucks, motor cycles, and bicycles, and a regiment of artillery which was partly horse-drawn and partly motorized. Armoured divisions had one regiment of infantry consisting of 184 light tanks, a regiment of bersaglieri (two battalions in trucks, the third on motor cycles) and a regiment of motorized artillery of 24 75 mm. guns. Alpine divisions consisted of two regiments of alpini and a regiment of artillery of 24...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...origins of a naval base at Portsmouth. John (r. 1199–1216). Whereas Richard’s military reputation outshines the rest of his abilities, John’s nonmilitary traits have long complicated our appreciation of his military policies. The epithet “Softsword” scarcely helped the picture, nor did his 1185 expedition as Lord of Ireland, which ended in a personal shambles. The early loss of Normandy and other Angevin heartlands to the French overshadowed the rest of John’s reign. The losses also meant that John gave Britain more attention than any recent monarch had. As...

Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
24,715 words
Illustration(s):
4

...also the general historical and cultural context in which they were generated, a consideration that also applies to material and visual material. This is especially apparent with respect to art, where different types of visual polemic or choice of style and format for images or cycles of images reflected developments in ecclesiastical politics and theology, as well as cultural priorities and perceptions. Similar considerations apply to sigillography, too, where the choice of invocative formula, types of monogram, and use of imagery are part of a contemporary...

Crusades

Crusades   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
48,851 words
Illustration(s):
8

...Andrew’s departure, only John of Brienne, as King of Jerusalem, held royal rank, and though elected leader of the armies for the assault on Egypt, he had to contend with the papal legate, the leaders of the military orders, and the various German, English, and French nobles who cycled in and out of the army. The target of the invasion, Damietta, was a strong fortress, but was considered attainable compared to Alexandria. The crusaders disembarked at the end of May 1218 , but the sultan’s son, al-Kamil, though surprised, managed to assemble a scratch force to...

India

India   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
8,954 words

...ages, should be prohibited in the Kali age. These, about fifty-five in number, were called “Kalivarjya.” That these injunctions were taken as normative rather than as prescriptive is proved by the increasing scale in twelfth-century Chola maritime activity despite the heightened emphasis on kalivarjya activities. Moreover, with regard to the Jain trading community, while monks were proscribed from using water transport, members of the lay community could use water transport. Such attitudes could also be related to Indic epistemological approaches. Knowledge...

Shipping

Shipping   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
21,990 words
Illustration(s):
1

...convoy system. Irreversible, however, was the decline of the Baltic grain trade. Though Amsterdam remained the entrepôt for the Netherlands and its hinterland , the rest of Europe now produced its own grain; England , for instance, even became an exporter. Growth was obvious in whaling: between 1680 and 1725 often more than 200 vessels sailed to Arctic waters for this seasonal activity. Later in the year these same vessels were frequently freighted for commercial purposes. Atlantic shipping expanded considerably during the eighteenth century, not only...

Navigational Instruments

Navigational Instruments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
30,532 words
Illustration(s):
5

...corrections. Instruments could, however, ease the task. In the absence of any other instrument, time could be obtained roughly from the compass. This could be helpful to sailors in northern coastal waters, where having an idea of their temporal position within the four-hour tide cycle was important. For such a purpose, making a relatively precise celestial observation hardly seemed warranted: the compass could suffice. On the assumption that the sun was due east at 6 a.m. , due south at noon, and due west at 6 p.m. , the eight compass points could each be...

Navies, Great Powers

Navies, Great Powers   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Military History
Length:
52,890 words
Illustration(s):
5

...the seas far from their bases, except in areas outside Europe where small naval forces might be decisive. It would not be fruitful to look for a European balance of power at sea before 1650 . This changed in the decades after 1650 , the English Civil Wr having started a cycle of naval expansion in western Europe . The English navy was rapidly increased by the new republic in efforts to secure its domestic and international position and to promote trade. This escalated into an Anglo-Dutch naval war ( 1652–1654 ) that caused a major expansion of the...

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