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Overview

basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)

46 The History of the Book in Latin America (including Incas, Aztecs, and the Caribbean)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Book

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
6,807 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Illustration(s):
2

...ended up affecting the book industry or the business of bookselling: for example, a protectionist national policy toward papermaking in Mexico resulted in higher production costs for books. In addition, the fall in oil prices, precipitating a financial crisis that led to cycles of hyperinflation, devaluation, and economic recession in most of the region during the 1980s actually reduced the population’s income, increased book production costs, and led to declining book sales. From 1984 to 1990 , for example, Argentina produced 18 per cent fewer...

Socialism

Socialism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
3,199 words
Illustration(s):
1

...eventually, in 1848 , to an outburst of revolutionary activity across Europe. Socialists of various stripes were involved in these events, and women were visible in the public contests. For example, women in France formed clubs, published newspapers, and demanded the vote, employment, and improved working conditions. Pauline Roland , a former follower of Saint‐Simon, hoped to create cooperatives of women and men workers and advocated equality in marriage and reform of moral life. By 1851 the cycle of revolution was over; Roland was arrested, sent to a...

Healing and Medicine

Healing and Medicine   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
8,332 words
Illustration(s):
2

...to being infected with HIV. Poverty, diet, exercise, stress, and access to health services all effect the progress of any disease. With HIV/AIDS, this cycle is especially evident and heightened as many poor women experience a limited ability to negotiate better or more equal lives with their sexual partners. [ See also Abortion ; AIDS ; Contraception ; Disease and Illnesses ; Female Life Cycle ; and Health .] Bibliography Fee, Elizabeth , and Nancy Krieger , eds. Women's Health, Politics, and Power: Essays on Sex/Gender, Medicine, and Public...

Welfare State

Welfare State   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
7,958 words
Illustration(s):
2

...most women. In general, welfare states have highly gendered dual systems of citizenship: one based on wage earning and the other based on unpaid caregiving in the family. Contingencies in a typically male life cycle, such as unemployment, industrial accidents, and retirement, are more comprehensively covered than contingencies in the female life cycle, such as pregnancy, child care, and widowhood. Whereas wage‐related programs (e.g., unemployment insurance) are usually statutory, caregiving‐related programs (e.g., family allowances) are often means‐tested....

Food

Food   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
5,592 words

...This entry consists of two subentries: Overview and Comparative History Preparation and Work Overview and Comparative History For women the world over, processing and cooking food have been important activities that displayed important dimensions of their gender identity. These activities can be valued or taken for granted, oppressive or creative. They can nurture or hurt, create or break family and community ties, and be a powerful voice through which women express themselves. Women and Food Provisioning. In land‐based cultures, women's roles in food...

Family

Family   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
12,259 words
Illustration(s):
3

...Servitude, and Escape . Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1994. Klapisch‐Zuber, Christiane . Women, Family, and Ritual in Renaissance Italy . Translated by Lydia Cochrane . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. Maynes, Mary Jo , and Ann Waltner . “ Women's Life‐Cycle Transitions in a World‐Historical Perspective: Comparing Marriage in China and Europe. ” Journal of Women's History 12, no. 4 (Winter 2001): 11–21. Maynes, Mary Jo , Ann Waltner , Birgitte Soland , and Ulrike Strasser , eds. Gender, Kinship, Power: A Comparative and...

Migration

Migration   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
5,639 words
Illustration(s):
1

...people's agency within its time and space came to signify the basic concepts and theories of migration studies, a framework imposed on all other migrations. For a long time these preconceptions distorted the analysis of other migration systems in the world. Between the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and the outbreak of World War II in 1939 , 55 million people left Europe—that is, one‐fifth of its population in 1800 ; 35 million left for North America, 8 million left for South America, and the rest went to Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Their moves were...

Children

Children   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
4,570 words
Illustration(s):
3

...century saw conflicts in Africa and parts of Southeast Asia highlight the role of heavily armed boy soldiers—at a time when societies in the rest of the world stressed the importance of keeping children out of conflict. A comparative perspective on childhood in 2000 would probably stress the huge differences in the timing of changes in birth and death rates, and educational levels, above all, even though similar basic trends may be at work. But other regional distinctions, including some new ones as in leadership of availability children's gadgets, must be...

Indigenous Cultures

Indigenous Cultures   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
19,332 words
Illustration(s):
3

...was mostly dominated by men. Ritual functions of noble Maya women. Maya women are frequently portrayed in the iconography as participants in rituals celebrating the achievement of some end of a calendrical cycle, as well as in monuments that commemorated the beginning of some other astronomical event of importance, like eclipses or phases of lunar cycles. Noble Maya women also took part in certain ceremonies in which various Maya gods were venerated. In addition to offering incense, prayers, and songs, Maya women took part actively by giving sacrificial blood...

Female Life Cycle

Female Life Cycle   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
16,094 words
Illustration(s):
5

...and shaken by reproductive cycles, which made the female mind subject to mental volatility. Eminent physicians named and quantified puerperal insanity, while it combined in the public mind with gruesome tales of infanticide in the sensationalist press. In both asylum records and the case notes of private doctors, it became a recognized disease, found among royal women and pauper women, first-time mothers and multiple-time mothers, the morally industrious and the dissolute and debauched. Remedies more often involved beef tea and rest than padded cells and...

Codes of Law and Laws

Codes of Law and Laws   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
23,748 words
Illustration(s):
4

...were accompanied by a “tutor,” who oversaw the activity. Such tutelage limited female activity. Nevertheless, late in the empire (first century b.c.e. –sixth century c.e. ), tutelage was largely pro forma, and women engaged in many activities, such as acting as municipal patrons—wealthy elites who paid for the building of monuments and temples and sponsored entertainments such as gladiatorial games, sporting contests, and theatrical productions—and owning and managing considerable property, all activities that women of the republic ( 510 b.c.e. –first...

Contraception

Contraception   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
6,852 words
Illustration(s):
4

...pursuit of physiological approaches to contraception. Identification of the sex hormones and their role in the female ovulatory cycle made it possible to predict when the brief period of fertility would occur. The rhythm method, calling for periodic abstinence around the middle of a menstrual month, won approval from Roman Catholic authorities but became known as “Vatican roulette” because of the variability in the ovulatory cycles of individuals. By the 1940s steroid chemists had begun to synthesize sex hormones, which proved a mainstay for a science‐based...

World Religions

World Religions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
17,113 words
Illustration(s):
7

...is no central creation myth or cosmogony because these Buddhists consider the cosmos to be without beginning. But like Hindus, they recognize world cycles that begin, endure, end, and begin again (see the Aggañña Sutta of the Pāli Canon and Visuddhimagga 13.13–71). They believe that this process results from ignorance and desire, the factors of conditioned existence ( pratīyasamutpāda ), which cause the cycle of existence on both cosmic and individual levels ( saṃsāra ). Early Buddhists criticized the Hindu creator god Brahmā and cautioned against asking...

Central Africa

Central Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
8,760 words
Illustration(s):
2

...and voiced opinions in the company of men. Senior wives and older women also exercised control over the labor of daughters‐in‐law, junior wives, and children. Gendered division of labor. Women and their labor were significant to the economic activities and sustenance of Central African societies. The household was the basic unit of economic and social reproduction, and a gendered division of labor delineated distinct and complementary tasks for women and men. Men participated in agricultural production by clearing fields of heavy brush and in some societies by...

China

China   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
20,242 words
Illustration(s):
6

...cultural conceptions and the changing ideas and institutions that provided the basic context of women's lives in the imperial period. The account that follows is divided into two main sections. The first section discusses certain cultural ideals and ideas that, for most of the imperial period, conditioned how people thought about the role of girls and women in family and society. It then shows how these ideas played out in practice by tracing the various stages of a woman's life cycle and by considering the exceptional circumstances of royal women. The second...

Europe

Europe   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
16,225 words
Illustration(s):
5

...in terms of economic activity, this has to be balanced against the question of whether sources record appropriate and inappropriate activities for women, rather than what women actually did. While little is known specifically about the lives of female peasants, women seem to have participated in agricultural labor but only in certain tasks: harvesting, for example, rather than plowing. Is this because they could only undertake roles that kept them near the home or because it was only acceptable to record them as performing such activities that kept them near...

United States

United States   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
17,515 words
Illustration(s):
7

...division of labor. In most Indian societies, men were responsible for activities that required long travel away from the group: hunting, fishing, trade, and warfare. Women, meanwhile, were responsible for activities that were compatible with taking care of small children who could not walk far: growing crops, gathering wild foods and herbs, building and maintaining homes, keeping fires, and cooking and preserving food. Europeans, however, considered hunting and fishing leisure activities, not work, and they believed men should do most of the labor of growing...

Festivals and Festival Cycles

Festivals and Festival Cycles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,724 words

...more complex; it was dialectical, and its symbolism was exuberant. Besides the solar reference, the structure of the festival calendar derived from seasonal and agricultural cycles. The division of the year into the dry season ( tonalco ) and the rainy season ( xopan ) was fundamental. Ceremonies dedicated to the deities of rain, maize, and the earth provided the basic calendrical cycle. Mesoamerica is situated within the tropical latitudes, where the sun passes the zenith twice a year, on its apparent journey toward the Tropic of Cancer (23°27′N), and on its...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,747 words

.... From 1500 to 1000 bce , small settlements of sedentary agriculturalists were formed, which produced baskets, ceramics, and stone objects by the first specialists. During this period, called the Formative (Preclassic), agricultural activity was transformed into an essential aspect of existence ( Wolf 1966 ), when the basic patterns of Mesoamerican civilization were originated and tested: technology, architecture, artisanal specialization, social differentiation, and religious specialization. According to Mangelsdorf , MacNeish , and Willey ( 1964 ),...

Standard of living

Standard of living   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,556 words

...mower. Skilled workers, who were successful in securing ‘margins’ over the basic wage and had access to plentiful overtime, fared better than unskilled workers. Until the achievement of equal pay in 1974 , men fared better than women. But for many families the postwar years brought unparalleled levels of material prosperity. ‘The working man was never better off than he is now’, the wife of a suburban butcher observed in the mid-1960s. In the early 1970s Australia, like the rest of the developed world, entered a new period of difficulty precipitated by the...

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