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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Aristotle

Aristotle   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,928 words

...eternally active and unaffected substance, whose activity is thinking and who inspires movement in the heavenly spheres by becoming an object of their love. Metaphysics describes the development of philosophy as a search for explanations of natural events that inspire wonder. In Physics Aristotle describes the types of explanation a natural philosopher should be prepared to give. He begins from the question ‘Why?’ ( dia ti )—asked either about a thing or a state of affairs; he suggests that there are four basic ways in which we can answer such a ‘why’...

Aristotle

Aristotle   Quick reference

Martha C. Nussbaum

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
4,483 words

...and unaffected substance, whose activity is thinking and who inspires movement in the heavenly spheres by becoming an object of their love. 20. The Metaphysics describes the development of philosophy as a search for explanations of natural events that inspire wonder. In the Physics Aristotle describes the types of explanation a natural philosopher should be prepared to give. He begins from the question ‘Why?’ ( dia ti )—asked either about a thing or a complex state of affairs; he suggests that there are four basic ways in which we can answer such a...

Aristotle

Aristotle (384–322)   Reference library

Martha C. Nussbaum and Catherine Osborne

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
4,398 words

... 12, Aristotle articulates his idea of god as an eternally active and unaffected substance, whose activity is thinking and who inspires movement in the heavenly spheres by becoming an object of their love. 20. According to the Metaphysics philosophy developed as a search for explanations of natural events that inspire wonder. In the Physics Aristotle describes the types of explanation a natural philosopher should give. He suggests that there are four basic ways in which we can answer the question ‘Why?’ about a thing or a state of affairs: first, we may...

Aristotle

Aristotle (384–322 bc)   Reference library

Martha C. Nussbaum and Catherine Osborne

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
4,959 words

... 12 , Aristotle articulates his idea of god as an eternally active and unaffected substance, whose activity is thinking and who inspires movement in the heavenly spheres by becoming an object of their love. 20. According to the Metaphysics philosophy developed as a search for explanations of natural events that inspire wonder. In the Physics Aristotle describes the types of explanation a natural philosopher should give. He suggests that there are four basic ways in which we can answer the question ‘Why?’ about a thing or a state of affairs: first, we may...

Plato

Plato   Quick reference

Julia Annas

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,698 words

...now requires grasp of an entire connected system of thought, and insight into the difference between the basic and the derived elements, and the ways in which the latter are dependent on the former. As the conditions for having knowledge become higher, knowledge becomes an ever more ideal state; in the Republic it is only to be achieved by an intellectually gifted élite, who have spent many years in unremittingly abstract intellectual activities, and have lived a life strenuously devoted to the common good. In the Republic Plato's account of...

Philosophy

Philosophy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
11,547 words

...also coincided with a return to Classical texts and thought, mainly that of Plato and Aristotle, whose work formed the core of the philosophical curriculum through the rest of antiquity. Why Philosophy? For Plato and Aristotle, philosophy began in wonder, in the natural human desire to know (Plato Theaetetus 155; Aristotle Metaphysics 1.1–2, especially 982b11–21), and in a cycle of puzzled wonder, inquiry, and increased insight that begins anew in case after case and life after life, as individual ontogeny continually recapitulates the history of...

Etruscans

Etruscans   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
6,113 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Calendar of Nigidius Figulus, the Roman scholar of the first century bce , who preserved a version of the calendar in Latin, which was later translated into Greek and survives in that form. These tell of particular ritual activities on particular days; the latter is concerned with the meaning of thunder for human activities in the spheres of health, agriculture, society, economy, and politics. Such Etruscan texts and the priests involved in interpreting their doctrines were of lasting influence in Roman religion. The haruspex (Etruscan, netsvis ),...

Plato

Plato   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,477 words

...now requires grasp of an entire connected system of thought, and insight into the difference between the basic and the derived elements, and the ways in which the latter are dependent on the former. As the conditions for having knowledge rise, knowledge becomes an ever more ideal state; in Republic it is to be achieved only by an intellectually gifted élite, who have spent many years in unremittingly abstract intellectual activities, and have lived a life strenuously devoted to the common good. In Republic Plato's account of knowledge,...

Marcus Aurelius

Marcus Aurelius (121–180ce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,226 words
Illustration(s):
1

...to emphasize that everything that is apparently stable is in fact in a process of continual transformation. The cosmos is an endless cycle of birth and death, creation and destruction. Human life—indeed all of human civilization—is merely a momentary slowing down of these larger impersonal cosmic processes. Much of our emotional distress and many of our ethical failings result from our inability to acknowledge this basic fact. But if we analyze our impressions correctly (using logic) and understand our place within Nature (with physics), then we shall learn...

Plato of Athens

Plato of Athens (c.429–347)   Reference library

Julia Annas

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,533 words

...now requires grasp of an entire connected system of thought, and insight into the difference between the basic and the derived elements, and the ways in which the latter are dependent on the former. As the conditions for having knowledge become higher, knowledge becomes an ever more ideal state; in the Republic it is only to be achieved by an intellectually gifted élite, who have spent many years in unremittingly abstract intellectual activities, and have lived a life strenuously devoted to the common good. In the Republic Plato’s account of knowledge,...

Plato

Plato (1) (c.429–347 bc)(of Athens)   Reference library

Julia Annas

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
3,893 words

...now requires grasp of an entire connected system of thought, and insight into the difference between the basic and the derived elements, and the ways in which the latter are dependent on the former. As the conditions for having knowledge become higher, knowledge becomes an ever more ideal state; in the Republic it is only to be achieved by an intellectually gifted élite, who have spent many years in unremittingly abstract intellectual activities, and have lived a life strenuously devoted to the common good. In the Republic Plato's account of knowledge,...

Forum in Rome

Forum in Rome   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
6,013 words
Illustration(s):
3

...seventh century bce one can date the first gravel pavement of the Forum. It will take a new cycle of excavations in the Forum to sort out this important question. On the positive side, major gains in archaeological knowledge have been made since about 1990 just on the edges of the Forum proper—both on the northwest side and on the opposite east side. Landslides of the local volcanic tuff known as cappellaccio , which took place in geological time, have come to rest in both places: beneath the U-shaped altar at the Comitium for the northwest side and below...

Minoan

Minoan   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
9,676 words
Illustration(s):
4

...or a hunter, usually shown with lions, sometimes with bulls. He is dressed in a typical Minoan loincloth or codpiece with belt. As the goddess figure is almost always shown in her role as a nature goddess, protectress of wild things and natural places and symbol of natural cycles, so the male god may have been associated with urban centres (although he also appears in natural landscapes): a seal impression from Chania , the so-called Master Impression ( Herakleion , Archaeol. Mus.), depicts the god (some would say king) standing protectively atop the...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
40,690 words
Illustration(s):
17

...outside the city walls, where they must have been dumped at the time of the Mycenaean occupation in lc iii . Among them was a fragment of a miniature frieze, showing a man’s booted leg and the head of a second figure below. The rest of the frieze is lost, but the fragment suggests that each Cycladic settlement at this time had a cycle of miniatures. From the original excavations ( British School at Athens , 1896–9 ), fragments of narrow friezes of Flying Fish in a Seascape were found in the Pillar Crypt. Dabs of blue paint indicate the sea that surrounds...

Virgil

Virgil (70–19 bc)   Reference library

Don P. Fowler and Peta G. Fowler

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
7,604 words

...significance (cf. G. B. Conte , The Rhetoric of Imitation ( 1986 ), 141–84). But the range of material whose traces may be interpreted in the Aeneid is vast: other earlier epics like Greek ‘cyclic’ epic ( E. Christian Kopff , ANRW 2. 31. 2 ( 1981 ), 919–47; see epic cycle ) and Naevius ' Punica ( M. Barchiesi , Nevio Epico ( 1962 ), 50–1 and passim ), Greek and Roman tragedy (Wigodsky, 80–97; A. König , Die Aeneis und die griechische Tragödie ( 1970 ); P. Hardie , PVS 1991 , 29–45), Hellenistic poetry ( W. Clausen , Virgil's Aeneid...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
93,988 words
Illustration(s):
35

.... They have the same basic features as their mh predecessors but show strong Minoan influences in technique and decoration. Settlements consisted of separate groups of usually free-standing one- or two-room houses. At the larger sites, habitations were more crowded and more complex, having basements and upper storeys; they were separated by lanes or were built along roads. The main room, which was rectangular with a hearth and supports for the roof, often had a vestibule and a courtyard in front and was divided by corridors from the rest of the house....

Mosaics

Mosaics   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
18,471 words
Illustration(s):
2

...subjects are rare. Scenes of contemporary life most often reflect the interests of the class of patrons who commissioned them: hunting, circus and amphitheatre scenes, life on the country estate. Personifications of the seasons are common, while illustrations of seasonal activities and cycles of the months are occasionally found, e.g. those from Saint-Romain-en-Gal (probably first quarter of 3rd century ad ; Saint-Germain-en-Laye , Mus. Ant. N.). Complex allegories and personifications occurred most often in the eastern Empire, perhaps reflecting current...

Women

Women   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
13,147 words
Illustration(s):
8

...rested in a fear of female sexuality, as seen in the myth of Pandora, and translated into constant scrutiny on citizen women, so much so that official texts from Athens regularly claim that respectable women literally never left their houses, where they stayed in a separate area called a gynaeceum, or “women's room.” Scholars had long accepted this claim, but the claim has recently been recognized as an enormous exaggeration, not least because citizen women from the lower classes often had to work outside the home and because religious rituals and basic...

Sculpture

Sculpture   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
90,898 words
Illustration(s):
41

...Treasury ( c. 510– c. 490 bc ) at Delphi , with its parallel cycles of the Labours of Herakles and the Exploits of Theseus . Mostly two-figure groups, these metopes show an extensive mastery of physical perspective. Sculpture 5. Metope showing a Centauromachy , marble, h. 1.72 m, from the south side of the Parthenon, Athens, High Classical, c. 440 bc (London, British Museum) © British Museum / Art Resource, NY In the Temple of Zeus ( c. 470– c. 457 bc ) at Olympia the canonical cycle of the Twelve Labours of Herakles was divided between the...

Pottery

Pottery   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
83,455 words
Illustration(s):
27

...the ‘Little Masters’, was an uninspired imitator of the Pescia Romana Painter, and the Human Mask group simply transferred to Caere and brought to an end the Rosoni group. Also possibly from Caere were the artisans of one of the latest groups, the Heraldic Cocks cycle, which, with the Bird cycle, produced the banal stereotypes that marked the end of the Etrusco-Corinthian. 7. Black-figure . Etruscan Black-figure ware was produced from c. 550 to c. 480 bc , and coincided with the highest percentage of importation of Athenian Black-figure and Red-figure...

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