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basic rest-activity cycle

A biological rhythm of waxing and waning alertness with a period of approximately 90 minutes in humans. During sleep it controls the cycles of REM and slow-wave sleep. Also called the ...

Dürer

Dürer   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
16,076 words
Illustration(s):
7

...body in motion, with no attempt at teaching anatomy, as he expressly emphasized. There is then a special section devoted to twisted and bent postures, which are evolved with the aid of parallel projection from the basic plan. Dürer's previous work, the Vnderweysung der Messung (Nuremberg, 1525 ), was intended to improve the young artist's basic theoretical equipment. Here too he progressed from practical information to theory and principle. He gave the first account in German of the generation of the ellipse, the parabola and the hyperbola from conic...

Greek art, ancient

Greek art, ancient   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Western Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
10,198 words

...dedicator, Smicrus. To cast a bronze statue, the Greeks took piece-moulds from a basic model, and lined them with wax to make a thin-walled wax working model, which was normally produced in sections and then pieced together. After adjusting the wax limbs and modelling and carving the surface details, the artist/technician dismantled the working model. The piece-moulds could be reused to form additional wax working models when more than one bronze was to be cast from the same basic model. The individual sections of the statue were invested separately in clay...

Drawing

Drawing   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
13,122 words
Illustration(s):
2

...with human activities. Another drawing type to flourish in Venice in the 18th century was the scherzi di fantasia , inventive compositions in which the artist explored the sources of his own private dreams and demons in mysterious, personal fantasies. Also utilized as pretexts for invention and composition were traditional themes, for example the life and death of Punchinello, the Everyman drawn from the improvisational theatrical tradition of the commedia dell’arte , which was chronicled in Giandomenico Tiepolo's celebrated cycle of over a hundred...

Indian subcontinent

Indian subcontinent   Reference library

Patrick Goode and Christopher Tadgell

The Oxford Companion to Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
9,792 words
Illustration(s):
4

...Nou Hinduism The success of Mayahana Buddhism, based in part on image worship, prompted a reform movement from within Brahmanism which led to the great religion later to be called Hinduism. Rejecting the claims of the upper-caste brahmin that release from the cycle of rebirth or reincarnation ( samsara ) was for the upper castes only, the reform movement offered the hope that divine grace could be invoked through devotion to a personal god. Chaitya hall, Karle, Maharashtra, India (2nd century?) ©The British Library Board. All Rights...

Textile

Textile   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Materials and Techniques in Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
30,529 words
Illustration(s):
15

...thread wound on a stick or spool, is inserted. For the following pick the odd-numbered ends are pushed down below the even-numbered ends to create the counter-shed. This concludes the weaving cycle (see fig. 6(i). After each insertion of the weft and before the next shed is formed, the last pick is beaten against the already woven fabric. Plain weave is the most basic weave structure and forms the foundation of many more complex weaves ( see §III, 1(i) below). Various developments to improve the loom and speed up weaving have, from time to time, taken place....

Bruegel

Bruegel   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
16,314 words
Illustration(s):
9

...) and ‘late autumn’. The pictures thus do not have to be assigned to particular months (a point that previously caused confusion). The cycle begins with early spring (the Gloomy Day ) and ends with winter ( Hunters in the Snow ). Unlike the older tradition of calendar scenes, Bruegel's emphasis is not on seasonal labours but on the transformation of the landscape itself. Novotny ( 1948 , p. 26) drew attention to the basic tonality of the landscapes, and Mössner (no. 86) observed that the six paintings (including the lost one of spring) form a chromatic...

Germany

Germany   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
23,530 words
Illustration(s):
4

...as were Leonardo da Vinci's science of physiognomy and Leon Battista Alberti's theory of art. In his woodcuts he attained a new mastery through formal refinement and heightened expression, raising the medium to the status of a fully developed art form. Major works include the cycles of the Apocalypse ( 1498 ; see Dürer , fig. 2), the Life of the Virgin ( c. 1500–11 ) and the Large Woodcut Passion ( 1510–11 ). He also produced woodcuts with secular themes, as in the Triumphal Arch of Emperor Maximilian ( 1512–18 ; see Habsburg , (2), fig. 1). In...

Native North American art

Native North American art   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of American Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
56,066 words
Illustration(s):
17

...Each region in North America approached beading techniques idiosyncratically, although basic techniques and applications were similar and often identical. Each tribe imparted distinct tribal tastes to best express community preferences. Some tribes used beads as only an accent, while others exclusively used particular colors and sizes of beads. In the Great Lakes region, white beads were used to outline and highlight designs. Types of Dress. After contact with the West, basic dress in North America became dependent upon access to materials, which was varied....

Netherlands, Northern

Netherlands, Northern   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Northern Renaissance Art

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture
Length:
22,426 words
Illustration(s):
2

...centre of activity was Utrecht. At the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th sculptural works of high quality were produced here, especially for the cathedral, by the anonymous master of the spandrel reliefs in the Van Diepholt chapel, by Jan Nude (statues for either the rood screen or the sacrament-house) and by Jan van Schayck (bosses and corbels). Several stone epitaphs for canons, mostly figuring a bust of the Virgin with the donor and his patron saint, also testify to the fact that Utrecht was a centre of sculptural activity. Wood...

Data Visualization

Data Visualization   Reference library

Amber Frid-Jimenez and Joseph Dahmen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,205 words

...ownership can be especially problematic when it is collected without the knowledge or consent of users. Basic activities such as browsing the Internet, visiting social media sites, and using cell phones provide a stream of data to a second layer of less visible technologies. For instance, web trackers persistently log and store data about users’ activities online, forming unique virtual profiles through the aggregation and analysis of these activities. These virtual profiles are combined with others to form networks of interactions that can be analyzed for a...

Death

Death   Reference library

Elisabeth Bronfen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,822 words

.... This essay explores the difficulties artists have had, historically and in principle, representing in their work issues or emotions related to death. Dying is a solitary, highly individual, and incommunicable event, perhaps the most private and most intimate moment in the life cycle of the human subject. Whether it marks, in religious terms, an exchange whereby the dissolution of the body is coterminous with an entry into a new spiritual existence and thus the return to divinity, or whether, in the more secular encoding of what Sigmund Freud calls the death...

Film

Film   Reference library

Noël Carroll, Paul Messaris, Carl Plantinga, Edward Dimendberg, David Bordwell, and Stephen Prince

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
17,115 words
Illustration(s):
1

...established the cycle as a favorite venue for some of Hollywood’s most gifted cinematographers and technicians, many of whom (John Alton, Rudolph Maté) were European émigrés. The earliest films noir were generally photographed on studio sets and depicted a darkened and claustrophobic city populated by indifferent strangers. This transposition of the iconography of French and German cinema (if not representations of the metropolis associated with the naturalist novel and photographic modernism) to an American context remains among the film cycle’s most decisive...

Autonomy

Autonomy   Reference library

Casey Haskins, Peter Bürger, Mary Devereaux, and K. Michael Hays

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,347 words

...and gallery symbolize. Understood in these terms, the aim of aesthetic autonomy is not to isolate artists or to separate art from the rest of life, but to protect art and artists from political interference. The idea that art deserves special protections is traditionally defended by appealing to the special character of art’s formal properties, but it is also possible to defend on straightforward political grounds. The basic idea here is that works of art deserve protection not because they are detached from life or disconnected from social forces, but...

Benjamin, Walter

Benjamin, Walter   Reference library

Max Pensky, Margaret Cohen, and Samuel Weber

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,578 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the “cycle of production” that was to occupy him from the late 1920s until his death in 1940 (Benjamin, 1994 , p. 322). In this cycle, Benjamin sought to untangle the interrelations in high capitalist modernity among economic modes of production, aesthetics, politics, technology, mass culture, and everyday life, including people’s fantasies and fears. Benjamin understood high capitalism predominantly in Frankfurt Marxist terms, dating it to the growth of industrial capitalism and consumer culture in Europe during the nineteenth century. Benjamin’s cycle on...

Jerusalem

Jerusalem   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
6,763 words
Illustration(s):
2

...pious foundations. Mt. Zion, to the south of the city, was the scene of endless contests between Christians, Muslims and even Jews involving cycles of demolition and reconstruction of buildings. For example, a Franciscan monastery was erected there in 1335 , and a synagogue was destroyed in 1474 and subsequently restored. Some 90 buildings remaining from the period 1200–1500 testify to the enormous building activity, which was concentrated on the western and northern sides of the Haram and its approaches, for only two Muslim buildings were erected in the...

Latin American Aesthetics

Latin American Aesthetics   Reference library

María Herrera, Elizabeth Millán, Hugo Moreno, Andrea Giunta, Tamara Stuby, and Rachel Weiss

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
15,176 words
Illustration(s):
6

...imagination is active in each realm of value study to conclude that the value of all values is aesthetic value, for only aesthetic value is sovereign, autonomous. Truth, Deústua goes on to explain, has instrumental value; but beauty has final value, and aesthetic activity is absolutely free activity insofar as it is the only realm of value where the laws set are not set to coerce, but rather to guide. In commenting on the distinction between truth and beauty, we see where Deústua is going with his line that the freedom of the aesthetic realm is freer than the...

Metaphor

Metaphor   Reference library

Mark Johnson, Josef Stern, Carl R. Hausman, David Summers, Samuel C. Wheeler III, and James Grant

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
18,932 words
Illustration(s):
1

...but in all forms of symbolic activity. Human beings are metaphoric animals whose experience, thought, and symbolic communication are, at least in part, the product of deep metaphoric processes. [ See also Aquinas, Thomas ; Aristotle ; Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm ; and Ricoeur, Paul .] Bibliography Aristotle . Poetics . Translated by Ingram Bywater . In The Basic Works of Aristotle , edited by Richard McKeon . New York: Random House, 1941. Aristotle . Rhetoric . Translated by W. Rhys Roberts . In The Basic Works of Aristotle , edited by...

Minoan

Minoan   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
9,676 words
Illustration(s):
4

...or a hunter, usually shown with lions, sometimes with bulls. He is dressed in a typical Minoan loincloth or codpiece with belt. As the goddess figure is almost always shown in her role as a nature goddess, protectress of wild things and natural places and symbol of natural cycles, so the male god may have been associated with urban centres (although he also appears in natural landscapes): a seal impression from Chania , the so-called Master Impression ( Herakleion , Archaeol. Mus.), depicts the god (some would say king) standing protectively atop the...

Bauhaus

Bauhaus   Reference library

Detlef Mertins

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
6,652 words
Illustration(s):
2

...their material and technical sobriety, utilitarian rigor, and systematic use of repetition. Moreover, these projects exemplified the proposition that aesthetic practice was a form of social production that could actively intervene in the organizational structure of the productive cycle. Meyer’s anti-aesthetic and antihumanist depletion of the object of bourgeois values aimed at sublating art into life, while self-reflexively reinscribing traces of production into the material presence of the object. As the political tide in the Weimar Republic continued to turn...

Painting

Painting   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
40,690 words
Illustration(s):
17

...outside the city walls, where they must have been dumped at the time of the Mycenaean occupation in lc iii . Among them was a fragment of a miniature frieze, showing a man’s booted leg and the head of a second figure below. The rest of the frieze is lost, but the fragment suggests that each Cycladic settlement at this time had a cycle of miniatures. From the original excavations ( British School at Athens , 1896–9 ), fragments of narrow friezes of Flying Fish in a Seascape were found in the Pillar Crypt. Dabs of blue paint indicate the sea that surrounds...

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