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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Tucker, Charlotte Maria

Tucker, Charlotte Maria (8 May 1821)   Reference library

Arthur Mcphee

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Society (ZSCMS). She continued her writing, producing missionary stories and tracts that were widely translated. With Rev. Francis Henry Baring , she helped start the Baring Union Christian College (later Baring Christian College * ) in Batala, Punjab. She also founded a primary school (later a high school) there. After her death the school was renamed ALOE. arthur mcphee Giberne, A. (1895), A Lady of England: The Life and Letters of Charlotte Maria Tucker , New York: Armstrong & Son. Montgomery, H.B. (1910), Western Women in Eastern Lands: An Outline...

Williams, James

Williams, James (11 October 1938)   Reference library

Wilbur Joacquim

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...to 1923 in the Punjab. He was the son of Williams, a medical missionary in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). James Williams was educated at Baring High School at Batala, then graduated from Forman Christian College * in 1906 . In 1907 , James Williams went to Japan as a member of the Indian delegation to the World Student Christian Federation held at Tokyo. During this trip, he was led to offer his life for service with the newly started NMS of India. As the first NMS missionary, he initiated work at Fazalabad in a far-off corner of Montgomery...

Green Theology (Eco-Theology) of India

Green Theology (Eco-Theology) of India   Reference library

Anand Veeraraj

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...and nature. Its implications for Christian life and witness are enormous and call for a radical new way of implementing theology, which advocates peace with God, peace with one's neighbours, and peace with nature. Green Theology initially emerged as an applied field of ethics in response to the growing environmental crisis. It combines the insights gained from the discipline of ecology with the arts for its praxis. Eco-theology was first articulated in the West by theologians such as Joseph Sittler , Richard A. Baer Jr , H. Paul Santmire , Daniel Day...

Guilds

Guilds   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,499 words

...), guilds in the Maghrib do not appear to have adopted these religious rituals per se. The existence of a corporative ritual (  futūwah , a term originally denoting “chivalry” but which came to refer more narrowly to life within trades and neighborhoods; see Cahen, 1970 ) has been documented for both Damascus (Qoudsî, 1885 ) and Cairo (Baer, 1964 ; Raymond, 1974 ): it possibly originated in Anatolian Turkey [ see Ibn Baṭṭūtah]. The futūwah manuals provide an image of rituals similar to those described in Evliya çelebi 's Seyahatname around the...

Deobandīs

Deobandīs   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,719 words

...political life at all. See also Aligarh ; India ; Iqbal, Muhammad ; Islam , subentry on Islam in South Asia ; Pakistan ; and Tablīghī Jamāʿat . Bibliography Faruqi, Ziya-ul-Hasan . The Deoband School and the Demand for Pakistan . New York: Asia Pub. House, 1963. Brief but useful treatment of the role of Deobandīs in support of the Congress movement. Friedmann, Yohanan . “The Attitude of the Jamīʿyat ʿUlamāʿ-i Hind to the Indian National Movement and the Establishment of Pakistan.” In The ʿUlamāʿ in Modern History , edited by Gabriel Baer , pp....

Monastic Communities of the Malankara Orthodox Church

Monastic Communities of the Malankara Orthodox Church   Reference library

M. John Panikkar

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,169 words

...mission activities in the church. They dedicate their lives with a motto of obedience, poverty, and celibacy. Their aim is to uplift the downtrodden and to fight against unjust social situations. They live with the bare minimum essentials of life and it is hoped that this organization would cater to the needs of the poor and continue as a living witness to our Saviour Jesus Christ. Mount Tabor Ashram (Society of the Sacred Transfiguration) was founded by Mar Thoma Dionysious, at Pathananpuram in 1926 , with the purpose of engaging itself in missionary...

Economic Development

Economic Development   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,259 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of women, and knowledge. See also Banks and Banking ; Interest ; and Modernization and Development . Bibliography Alizadeh, Parvin , ed. Iran's Economy: The Dilemmas of an Islamic State . London, 2000. Documents and explains Iran's economic deterioration in the 1980s and 1990s. Baer, Gabriel . Egyptian Guilds in Modern Times . Jerusalem, 1964. Structure, functions, and history of Egypt's guilds. Danielsen, Albert L. The Evolution of OPEC . New York, 1982. History of the oil price shocks and relations between host governments and international oil companies....

Capitulations

Capitulations   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,048 words

...13–55. Compares Venetian, English, and Dutch consular systems. Susa, Nasim . The Capitulatory Régime of Turkey: Its History, Origin, and Nature . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1933. Fulfills its title. Wansbrough, John , Halil İnalçik , Ann K. S. Lambton , and Gabriel Baer . “Imtiyāzāt.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam , new ed., vol. 3, pp. 1178–1195. Leiden, 1979. The most extensive account and the main source for this article; includes a comprehensive bibliography. Wood, Alfred Cecil . A History of the Levant Company . London: Routledge, 1935. Trade...

Funerary Rites

Funerary Rites   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,356 words

...odor and prevent abuse of the body by animals. Within the grave a niche is dug on the qiblah side of grave, or else a smaller trench is dug in the floor of the grave. Into this the body is placed without a coffin, lying on its right side, facing the qiblah . The cheek is bared and placed on a stone. The niche or trench is then sealed with bricks or stones, and earth is replaced in the grave and mounded slightly above ground level. These burial stipulations reflect the belief that the individual is questioned by two angels at death, and those who answer...

Kufr

Kufr   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,729 words

...Khārijīs that meant even a Muslim 's blood might be shed since he was outside the community of Islam by his disobedience. The opposite of this judgmental rigorism was the position attributed to the Murjʿah ; they asserted that anyone who faced the Muslim qiblah and performed a bare minimum of the ritual requirements was a Muslim and so could not be a kāfir . In the development of kalām or scholastic theology, discussions of kufr have a place in the controversies concerning the effects of sin upon the religious and legal status of a Muslim. Has a Muslim...

ʿUlamāʿ

ʿUlamāʿ   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,578 words

...lead Muslim societies into modernization. Antoun, Richard T. Muslim Preacher in the Modern World: A Jordanian Case Study in Comparative Perspective . Princeton, 1989. Insightful study of the political roles of the ʿulamāʿ in Jordan, with particular reference to mosque sermons. Baer, Gabriel , ed.“The ʿUlamaʿ in Modern History.” Special issue of Asian and African Studies 7 (1971). Deals with Sunnī authorities in the Ottoman Empire, Syria, Sudan, Palestine, India, Egypt, and the Maghrib. Hassan, Mohammad Kamal . Muslim Intellectual Responses to “New Order”...

Qurʿānic Recitation

Qurʿānic Recitation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,931 words
Illustration(s):
1

...completing the whole within a week. If the Arabic text of the Qurʿān can be rendered authentically in oral form, so also must any oral performance be amenable to accurate transcription. It is important to note, however, that authentic live recitation is more complete, because the bare written text does not contain the rhythm, sounds, modes, and fine points of pronunciation that the performed text exhibits. The Qurʿān is believed by Muslims to be revealed strictly orally to Muḥammad, who (it is believed) could neither read nor write. The technical skills of...

Iṣlāḥ

Iṣlāḥ   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,970 words

...and concentrated on the issues of Islamic religious reform through education and jurisprudence. In 1888 he was allowed to return to Egypt where he took a conciliatory attitude toward the British occupation and enjoyed the patronage of the British Consul General, Sir Evelyn Baring , better known as Lord Cromer. In 1895 he was appointed government representative of the Administrative Committee of the old Islamic al-Azhar University, and in 1899 he became the Grand Muftī of Egypt. He explained his political attitude then in the following terms: Political...

Turkish Literature

Turkish Literature   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
10,561 words

...Revolution. Although the Servet-i fünun group was effectively silenced as a public forum, literary discussion continued at the Tuesday salons of the poet Nigâr Hanım ( 1856–1918 ), whose pensive love poetry had appeared in Servet-i fünun under her pen name Uryan Kalb (Bare Heart). Major works by Tevfik Fikret , reflecting a vehement cultural self-hatred and a newly found social concern, were circulated widely without publication. His style is exemplified in Sis (Mist, 1901 ), a loathing depiction of Istanbul as a veiled whore in a tyrant's grip,...

Chronology

Chronology   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
15,368 words

...leader of al-Qaʿida in Iraq, killed by U.S. forces 2006 Keith Ellison becomes first Muslim American to be elected to the House of Representatives, representing the state of Minnesota 2006 December 29: Saddam Hussein hanged in Baghdad 2007 Lebanese army launches attacks on Nahr el-Bared, a Palestinian refugee camp in northern Lebanon 2007 Rachida Dati becomes first Muslim female minister of justice in France 2007 December 27: Benazir Bhutto, former Pakistani prime minister, murdered in Pakistan after returning from political exile 2008 February 17: Kosovo...

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