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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Valley of the Kings

Valley of the Kings   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... b.c.e .), the pharaohs commissioned pyramid tombs and temples in anticipation of their journeys to the afterlife. They filled these tombs with the goods considered necessary for the next life, including jewels, precious metals, food, tools, furniture, and even royal servants and pets. These riches lured grave robbers, who stripped most of the known tombs virtually bare. Beginning with Amenhotep I ( 1525–1504 b.c.e .), however, the pharaohs located their burial complexes on the west bank of the Nile , across the river from Thebes , in a valley hidden by...

Niger

Niger   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,904 words
Illustration(s):
2

...while bankruptcy loomed and internal unrest mounted, particularly among students and northern Tuareg rebels. Consequently, in January 1996 Ousmane disbanded the general assembly and unconstitutionally designated a new prime minister. In the midst of this crisis, Colonel Ibrahim Bare Mainassara staged a military coup. International donors responded by suspending foreign aid. Unable to pay civil servants, military troops, and government administrators, Mainassara appeased the international donors by promising elections. He introduced a new constitution and held...

Art and Architecture, African

Art and Architecture, African   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,164 words
Illustration(s):
3

...important women in the court was the king's senior wife, who was often a subject of these sculptures. Not only did she have the responsibility for placing the crown on the newly designated king's head; she also oversaw the state treasury and harem. Often her breasts were shown bare, a reference to her critical role in bearing and nurturing the royal children and to the power of women more generally in Yoruba society. Many Akan arts, especially those of Asante royalty in Ghana, emphasize themes of governmental authority and prerogative. Ceremonial stools that...

Guizhou Province

Guizhou Province (2007)   Reference library

Ronald David HILL

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...(68,000 square miles, about the size of Uruguay), of which only 4,900 square kilometers (1,982 square miles) are under cultivation. Much land is habitable only at low densities or not at all. About 75 percent of the land is hills and mountains, mostly limestone. About 3 percent is bare rock. So limited is agricultural land that each acre must support twenty farm people. Each acre, even on slopes, must be cropped, on average, 1.8 times a year. Population pressure results in 40 percent of the total land being seriously eroded. About 63 percent of Guizhou’s workers...

Qiú Yīng

Qiú Yīng (1494–1552)   Reference library

Ellen Johnston LAING

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,587 words
Illustration(s):
3

...situations. This is already evident in his two early paintings of bare-chested men ( Zhuangzi and Thatched Hut under Bamboo and Wutong Trees ). In later times, Qiu continued his “slice of life” scenes in at least three paintings. In the undated handscroll Picking Lotus (present location unknown), a man reclines in a thatched kiosk at the edge of a lotus pond; he is barefoot, one leg is propped on the other knee; his chest and belly are exposed and the sleeve of his robe is rolled up to bare his arm. A neglected lute lies nearby. A servant wearing thin...

WANG Xizhi

WANG Xizhi (303?–379? ce)   Reference library

Fatima WU

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...minister’s residence to select the right man for his daughter. Young men of letters flocked to the palace dressed in their best clothes. Wang, not anxious to please, arrived late in casual clothing. He managed to find a seat near a bed. Because of the heat, he untied his belt and bared his abdomen. Such behavior marked him as different from the rest, and he left an impression of spontaneity on those who were present. When Shi heard this report, he decided to give Wang his daughter’s hand. Following the Confucian tradition, Wang received a military position at...

ZHAO Ziyang

ZHAO Ziyang (1919–2005)   Reference library

Kirk W. LARSEN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...He remained a member of the CCP but was almost completely absent from public life until his death. Many events have been held in the world’s largest public square, but it is the student protests of June 1989 , when Zhao Ziyang supported and then tried to calm those camped in the Square, that continue to resonant. photo by joan lebold cohen. Zhao died in January 2005 at the age of eighty-five. The PRC government acknowledged Zhao’s death but kept memorials to a bare minimum, perhaps in fear that widespread mourning of Zhao’s passing might lead to...

♂ Chén Kǎigē

♂ Chén Kǎigē (1952)   Reference library

Haomin GONG

Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography (Volume 4)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,671 words
Illustration(s):
1

...after several weeks of protests for more democratization, the film presented, in accordance with the gloomy atmosphere then shrouding China, the loneliness and desolation of human beings trapped in a spiritual void. This early stage in Chen's filmmaking, characterized by bare stories, stylized audio and aural presentation, philosophic ideas, and the challenge to the establishment, came to a conclusion in the early 1990s. These films, paradoxically, were direct products of the social system of which they were so critical; the not-yet-commercialized...

Fù Hǎo

Fù Hǎo   Reference library

Sherry J. MOU

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,086 words
Illustration(s):
2

...with neighboring states throughout the dynasty continued advancing its development in bronze weaponry, including axes, long-handled axes, arrowheads, spears, sabers, some shields, and parts of carriages. The bronze ritual vessels produced toward the end of the Shang dynasty bare unprecedentedly elegant, intricate designs of stylized patterns and animal shapes. Also found among the oracle bone inscriptions are other records of technologies such as pottery, astronomy (solar and lunar eclipses and calendar calculations), mathematics (concepts of even, odd,...

Civil Service Examinations

Civil Service Examinations   Reference library

Benjamin A. ELMAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...civil service examinations in his many stories that parodied the examination system. His most famous portrait sketched “The Seven Likenesses of a Candidate”: A licentiate taking the provincial examination may be likened to seven things. When entering the examination hall, bare-footed and carrying a basket, he is like a beggar. At roll-call time, being shouted at by officials and abused by their subordinates, he is like a prisoner. When writing in his cell, with his head and feet sticking out of the booth, he is like a cold bee late in autumn. Upon...

Xú Xiákè

Xú Xiákè (1587–1641)   Reference library

Julian WARD

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,452 words
Illustration(s):
2

...Man of His Times It is important to remember that Xu Xiake was not operating in a vacuum; his life and work must be considered in the context of the customs of his age. Like Wang Shixing, for example, he commented adversely on the customs of the minority peoples of the southwest. Wang Shixing described the Yáo 傜 ‎ people as “the most evil and hard to cultivate” and the Luóluó 罗罗 ‎ as being “constantly grubby from not washing and the men and women went round in bare feet” ( Wang 1993 , 214–219). In a similar vein, Xu Xiake, while in Téngyuè 腾越 ‎ in western...

Wáng Mǎng

Wáng Mǎng (45 bce–23 ce)   Reference library

John E. WILLS, Jr.

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,634 words
Illustration(s):
1

...A copy of a tedious classicizing state document may go on for several pages, followed by a cryptic reference to a female rebel leader or to abuses of military conscription. Ban Gu sometimes elaborates on Wang Mang’s tyranny, manipulation, and hypocrisy, but sometimes makes only a bare statement. What should be inferred, for example, of those 487,572 petitions urging that Wang accept high honors? An excellent census of the empire in 2 ce yielded a total population of about 57 million. Thus petitions were received from almost one in a hundred of all the...

Sīmǎ Qiān

Sīmǎ Qiān (145–86 bce)   Reference library

Grant HARDY

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
7,572 words
Illustration(s):
2

...later served as palace secretary. He accompanied the emperor on several journeys. After his death, his grandson (through a daughter) worked to publicize his history, and within a century the Shiji was widely admired. The Shiji That is about all we know of Sima Qian’s life, but the bare facts of his biography do not explain why he is so important in Chinese history. For that we must turn to the Shiji itself and explore what he accomplished with his book and what he had hoped to achieve. By looking for clues in his writings, we can construct an...

Disasters

Disasters   Reference library

John C. HORGAN

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...been closer to 750,000. Regardless, the government, after a few days’ delay, mounted a massive rescue and relief operation. China’s People’s Liberation Army ( PLA ) sent 150,000 troops to the area; however, the troops were improperly equipped and were forced to dig with their bare hands, thus slowing rescue operations. Nearly four hundred aircraft per day operated in and out of the quake zone, and 160 special health-care trains provided medical assistance. The government even sprayed disinfectant to stem the spread of disease. The overall damage was...

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