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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Václav Havel

Václav Havel   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
2,833 words

...to his wife—later collected into the book-length Letters to Olga —one of the strangest “philosophic” works ever published. Alongside lengthy theoretical reflections, Havel bared his soul. He exhibited extraordinary steadfastness, yet at times showed himself to be frightened and self-absorbed. When he became seriously ill after three years in prison, Olga, always the anchor in his life, raised such a stir that Havel was released in 1983 . Havel could have left prison at any time; he merely had to abandon his “anti socialist activities.” The Communist...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

Michael B. Katz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
2,069 words

...periodic illness, rather than long-term unemployment. In the best of times, they earned barely enough to feed and clothe a family, but seasonal labor demands, as well as shifts in the business cycle, often left them with no work at all. In and out of work, they alternated between bare self-sufficiency and dependence. Work-related accidents and sickness struck ordinary workers and their families frequently and with devastating impact. Because they had little or no insurance, a serious illness could devastate the capacity of families to support themselves; well...

Lebanon

Lebanon   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
4,844 words

...another major challenge to the Lebanese government. This became an issue of particular interest following the May–September 2007 clashes that opposed the Lebanese army against an Islamist group, Fatah al-Islam, reputedly close to Al Qaeda, in the Palestinian camp of Nahr al-Bared in North Lebanon. The Lebanese army was accused of using disproportionate force at a time when the camp was still teeming with civilians. Human Rights Watch documented a number of egregious cases of arbitrary detention and physical abuse of young Palestinian men fleeing the camp....

Bahá’í Faith

Bahá’í Faith   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
3,274 words

...In a final effort to squelch Bahá’u’lláh's growing influence, in 1868 the Ottoman government decided to send him and his family to one of the worst prisons in the Ottoman Empire, ‘Akka (Acre), a fortified prison-city in Palestine. For two years Bahá’u’lláh was confined to a bare prison cell. The Ottoman authorities tried to prejudice the local population against Bahá’u’lláh and the Bahá’ís. However, according to reports, the kindness of the Bahá’ís gradually won over the population. Bahá’u’lláh and his family were then allowed to live in various dwellings...

Holocaust

Holocaust   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
9,383 words

...preceding five years. In fact, in certain cases, the attacks and degradation were even more extreme than what occurred in Germany. Jews were dragged from their homes, forced to scrub anti-Nazi slogans off the pavement with toothbrushes, clean latrines in police barracks with their bare hands, and were publicly terrorized in various other ways. Many of those who subjected Jews to these humiliations were teens and even young children. Hundreds of Jews were arrested, physically tortured, and incarcerated in concentration camps. Many never returned alive. The Nazi...

Right to Food and Adequate Standard of Living

Right to Food and Adequate Standard of Living   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,840 words

...comes from providing for oneself. In any well-structured society, the objective is to move toward conditions under which all people can provide for themselves. One of the major critiques of humanitarian assistance programs has been that “aid processes treat lives to be saved as bare life, not as lives with a political voice” (Edkins, p. xvi). One can assure that people are treated like dignified human beings, rather than like animals on a feedlot, by making sure that they have some say in how they are being treated. Thus, in a human rights system, the people...

National Courts

National Courts   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
6,662 words

...common in other countries: that is, the losing side in a U.S. lawsuit does not have to pay the winning side's legal fees. As a result, U.S. plaintiffs and lawyers can attempt novel litigation without fear of penalty if they lose. In addition, U.S. procedure permits the filing of bare-bones complaints stating the basic allegations of a case. Additional facts to support the claims can be developed during the litigation, when the two sides are required to exchange information relevant to the case. The United States also has a tradition of public interest...

AIDS/HIV

AIDS/HIV   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Human Rights

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Law, Human Rights and Immigration, Social sciences
Length:
8,225 words

...show that when male and female family members are HIV-positive, men are more likely to receive treatment than women. Although the lack of protection of women's human rights in marriage, education, and employment makes them vulnerable to HIV infection, it also means that women bare the burden of AIDS in poor countries. Customs and the legal system may not protect a woman's access to her husband's property when he dies. Instead, property may return to the husband's family. This property grabbing discriminates against women, and may plunge their children and...

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