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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Child, Lydia Maria

Child, Lydia Maria   Reference library

Chris Dixon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the World , a collection of writings from various religions. Finally achieving financial security late in life, during the 1870 s Child donated to a host of causes she deemed worthy of support. Lydia Maria Child died in 1880 . [ See also Antebellum Era ; Antebellum Reform ; Antislavery ; Woman Suffrage Movement ; and Women’s Rights Movement, Antebellum Era . ] bibliography Baer, Helene G. The Heart Is like Heaven: The Life of Lydia Maria Child . Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1964. Karcher, Carolyn L. The First Woman in...

Forrest, Edwin

Forrest, Edwin (1806–1872)   Reference library

Hischak Thomas S.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Forrest was immediately popular with working-class audiences because of his handsome, rugged appearance and his tall, muscular body, which was shown to advantage in roles that let him display his bare arms and legs. His deep, resounding voice and the way he used it in dramatic flourishes, however, did not endear him to the more genteel audiences. Throughout his life this class distinction in his audiences was always evident. It came to a head in 1849 when Forrest performed Macbeth in Manhattan at the same time the cultured British actor William Charles ...

Dust Bowl

Dust Bowl   Reference library

Donald Worster

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...rapidly into the windy, drought-prone plains. Native grasses that had evolved a high degree of climatic resilience abruptly disappeared under the plow. For a while crops were abundant and profits high, but then began a record-breaking drought that withered the fields and left them bare. Severe but short-lived droughts recurred in the decades after the 1930 s, but none had the impact of the Dust Bowl years, leading many observers to conclude that farmer ingenuity and improved technology had made another disaster impossible. In truth, although a constant flow of...

Boxing

Boxing   Reference library

Elliot J. Gorn

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Thought and Culture ; Ali, Muhammad ; Consumer Culture ; Gender ; Irish American Culture ; Italian American Culture ; Johnson, Jack ; Jewish American Intellectual and Cultural Life ; Journalism ; Latino Culture ; Louis, Joe ; Popular Culture ; Poverty, Charity, and Welfare ; Radio ; Sports ; and Television . ] Bibliography Gorn, Elliott J. The Manly Art: Bare-Knuckle Prize Fighting in America . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1986. Sammons, Jeffrey . Beyond the Ring: The Role of Boxing in American Society . Urbana: University of...

Slave Narratives

Slave Narratives   Reference library

Dustin E. Hannum

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...trappings of sentimental and gothic fiction, to appeal to readers, yet the formerly enslaved authors were often asked to give the bare facts of their experience so as to avoid charges of exaggeration or sensationalism and were often treated by their white abolitionist sponsors as commodities for public consumption rather than fully formed subjects. Frederick Douglass , who became a celebrity with his 1845 Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave , remarks on the experience of this in his 1855 autobiography: as an antislavery...

Pirates

Pirates   Reference library

Joel H. Baer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Pirates, and the Anglo-American Maritime World, 1700–1750 . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1987. A groundbreaking, lavishly documented study of maritime laborers in conflict with mercantile capitalism and of the strategies for resistance that they pioneered. Joel H. ...

Medicine, Popular and Non-Western

Medicine, Popular and Non-Western   Reference library

Cullen Clark

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...of the twenty-first century, Americans continued their tradition of medical pluralism. [ See also Great Awakenings ; Health and Fitness ; Health and Healing, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries ; Hospitals and Dispensaries ; Midwifery ; and Religion . ] bibliography Baer, Hans A. Biomedicine and Alternative Healing Systems in America: Issues of Class, Race, Ethnicity, and Gender . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2001. Barnes, Patricia, Eve Powell-Griner, Kim McFann, and Richard L. Nahin. “Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use among...

Valley of the Kings

Valley of the Kings   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

... b.c.e .), the pharaohs commissioned pyramid tombs and temples in anticipation of their journeys to the afterlife. They filled these tombs with the goods considered necessary for the next life, including jewels, precious metals, food, tools, furniture, and even royal servants and pets. These riches lured grave robbers, who stripped most of the known tombs virtually bare. Beginning with Amenhotep I ( 1525–1504 b.c.e .), however, the pharaohs located their burial complexes on the west bank of the Nile , across the river from Thebes , in a valley hidden by...

Everyday Life

Everyday Life   Reference library

Jack Larkin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...life might soon be enacted in the virtual world. [ See also Automation and Computerization ; Automobiles ; Cities and Suburbs ; Clothing ; Communication Networks ; Consumption ; Electricity and Electrification ; Leisure ; Public Health ; Rural Life and Society ; Work ; and Working-Class Life and Society . ] bibliography Blassingame, John W. The Slave Community: Plantation Life in the Antebellum South . Rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1979. Still the most comprehensive and insightful study of community, family, and ordinary life...

Gambling and Lotteries

Gambling and Lotteries   Reference library

Haller Mark H.

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...; Italian American Culture ; Jewish American Intellectual and Cultural Life ; Native American Culture ; New England ; Popular Culture ; Puritanism; and Sports . ] Bibliography Ezell, John Samuel . Fortune's Merry Wheel: The Lottery in America . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1960. Findlay, John M. People of Chance: Gambling in American Society from Jamestown to Las Vegas . New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. Gorn, Elliott J. The Manly Art: Bare-Knuckle Prize Fighting in America . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press,...

Niger

Niger   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
3,904 words
Illustration(s):
2

...while bankruptcy loomed and internal unrest mounted, particularly among students and northern Tuareg rebels. Consequently, in January 1996 Ousmane disbanded the general assembly and unconstitutionally designated a new prime minister. In the midst of this crisis, Colonel Ibrahim Bare Mainassara staged a military coup. International donors responded by suspending foreign aid. Unable to pay civil servants, military troops, and government administrators, Mainassara appeased the international donors by promising elections. He introduced a new constitution and held...

Poverty

Poverty   Reference library

Michael B. Katz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Social History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...periodic illness, rather than long-term unemployment. In the best of times, they earned barely enough to feed and clothe a family, but seasonal labor demands, as well as shifts in the business cycle, often left them with no work at all. In and out of work, they alternated between bare self-sufficiency and dependence. Work-related accidents and sickness struck ordinary workers and their families frequently and with devastating impact. Because they had little or no insurance, a serious illness could devastate the capacity of families to support themselves; well...

Dance

Dance   Reference library

Charmaine Patricia Warren

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...in San Francisco, was a social dance instructor who embraced nature and explored how humans move as part of nature; she wanted nothing to do with ballet and its accoutrements. Instead, influenced by François Delsarte's system of analyzing body gesture and movement, she danced with bare feet, wore Greek tunics, and used everyday movement such as skipping, walking, and jumping. Fuller (aka Maude Allen, 1862–1928 ), born in Illinois, had no dancing lessons, but was known for her devised performances where she held extended sticks covered with voluminous fabrics,...

Communications

Communications   Reference library

David M. Henkin

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...By 1849 , just five years after Samuel Morse's successful demonstration of electromagnetic signal transmission between Baltimore and Washington, D.C., boxing fans in Philadelphia or New York could sit in saloons and receive round-by-round results of the Tom Hyer–Yankee Sullivan bare-knuckle prize fight in Kent County, Maryland. The Impact of Telegraphy. But the impact of telegraphy on the history of long-distance communications is easily and often exaggerated. Telegraph wires connected cities on the eastern seaboard in the early years, but many of the same...

Gender

Gender   Reference library

Ellen C. DuBois, Rosemarie Zagarri, White Nelson Elizabeth, Leisa D. Meyer, and Maureen A. Fitzgerald

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...this crisis in masculinity. For men who could not reclaim their masculinity in the pristine wilderness of newly designated national parks, sports offered a more practical alternative. In the second half of the nineteenth century, baseball and bare-knuckle boxing were an important part of urban recreational life, offering new models of masculinity for working-class men. Collegiate sports helped answer similar concerns about declining virility among the middle and upper classes. For working-class men and women, dance halls and amusement parks offered new...

Fashion

Fashion   Reference library

Patricia A. Cunningham

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the twenty-first century. The hip-hop term bling manifested in a proliferation of bold jewelry and metallic, rhinestone, and sequin applications on women's clothing. Glitter showed up on shoes, handbags, blouses, skirts, sweaters, and more. The look of the 1990s continued with bare midriffs, low-rise jeans, cargo pants and shorts, sweater sets, and strapless evening and daytime dresses. Revivals of past fashions also returned, with 1970s tights and 1980s big shoulders showing up on the runways. Even skinny pants were back. Luxury European leather goods...

Art and Architecture, African

Art and Architecture, African   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Africa

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies, History, Regional and National History
Length:
5,164 words
Illustration(s):
3

...important women in the court was the king's senior wife, who was often a subject of these sculptures. Not only did she have the responsibility for placing the crown on the newly designated king's head; she also oversaw the state treasury and harem. Often her breasts were shown bare, a reference to her critical role in bearing and nurturing the royal children and to the power of women more generally in Yoruba society. Many Akan arts, especially those of Asante royalty in Ghana, emphasize themes of governmental authority and prerogative. Ceremonial stools that...

Guizhou Province

Guizhou Province (2007)   Reference library

Ronald David HILL

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...(68,000 square miles, about the size of Uruguay), of which only 4,900 square kilometers (1,982 square miles) are under cultivation. Much land is habitable only at low densities or not at all. About 75 percent of the land is hills and mountains, mostly limestone. About 3 percent is bare rock. So limited is agricultural land that each acre must support twenty farm people. Each acre, even on slopes, must be cropped, on average, 1.8 times a year. Population pressure results in 40 percent of the total land being seriously eroded. About 63 percent of Guizhou’s workers...

Qiú Yīng

Qiú Yīng (1494–1552)   Reference library

Ellen Johnston LAING

The Berkshire Dictionary of Chinese Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,587 words
Illustration(s):
3

...situations. This is already evident in his two early paintings of bare-chested men ( Zhuangzi and Thatched Hut under Bamboo and Wutong Trees ). In later times, Qiu continued his “slice of life” scenes in at least three paintings. In the undated handscroll Picking Lotus (present location unknown), a man reclines in a thatched kiosk at the edge of a lotus pond; he is barefoot, one leg is propped on the other knee; his chest and belly are exposed and the sleeve of his robe is rolled up to bare his arm. A neglected lute lies nearby. A servant wearing thin...

WANG Xizhi

WANG Xizhi (303?–379? ce)   Reference library

Fatima WU

Berkshire Encyclopedia of China

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...minister’s residence to select the right man for his daughter. Young men of letters flocked to the palace dressed in their best clothes. Wang, not anxious to please, arrived late in casual clothing. He managed to find a seat near a bed. Because of the heat, he untied his belt and bared his abdomen. Such behavior marked him as different from the rest, and he left an impression of spontaneity on those who were present. When Shi heard this report, he decided to give Wang his daughter’s hand. Following the Confucian tradition, Wang received a military position at...

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