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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Sculpture

Sculpture   Reference library

James N. Carder

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Art, Washington, DC.) Hiram Powers proved successful where Greenough had failed, at least as far as public perception was concerned. Before leaving in 1835 for study in Italy, where he also would remain for the remainder of his life, he sculpted an acclaimed bust portrait of Andrew Jackson draped in a toga, but without bare chest, and chose to realistically depict Jackson’s aged and care-worn face—reportedly at the president’s request—much in the manner of ancient Roman Republican portraiture (Metropolitan Museum of Art). His Greek Slave of 1843 ,...

Constitutions of the States

Constitutions of the States   Reference library

Lawrence M. Friedman

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the end of the new century’s first decade. These cases stand in the shadow of the American Enlightenment; together, they mark the liberalizing effect over time of a constitutional commitment to the principle of equality, and to the continuing legitimacy of a judicial check on the bare desire of a majority to single out a political minority for differential treatment. It seems, then, that the past was prologue: borne of Enlightenment values, state constitutions and state courts are, more than 200 years after the ratification of the United States Constitution,...

Politeness

Politeness   Reference library

Jennifer Van Horn

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...constructed Georgian mansions polite people divided public spaces intended for entertaining visitors from private ones. They also refined the interiors of houses to make them more comfortable and to better accommodate their use as sites for lavish display, covering previously bare walls with wooden paneling and substituting fireplaces surrounded by ornamental plaster work for large brick hearths. The assemblage of material goods, genteel architecture, and decorous bodies that typified eighteenth-century politeness is immortalized in the conversation piece,...

Rush, Benjamin

Rush, Benjamin (1746–1813)   Reference library

Nina Reid-Maroney

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...came to define the Enlightenment’s troubled legacy for women through much of the nineteenth century. Liberal, optimistic, and progressive as his views on race, reform, and education may have been, Rush stumbled on the question of women’s equality. In the process, he laid bare the Enlightenment’s most profound limitations. Although, as his biographers have noted, Rush seldom left Philadelphia once he re-turned from Edinburgh, he positioned himself at the center of Philadelphia’s Enlightenment and wherever possible—through correspondence, publication,...

American Revolution

American Revolution   Reference library

Edward Countryman

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the fundamental terms of their existence. Historically, there had been no “People of the United States of America.” Now such a people existed, by an act of reasoned, enlightened self-creation. The United States Constitution contains few remnants of the old order. The bare shape of institutions is deceptive. The presidency might resemble the Crown, the United States Senate might resemble the House of Lords, and the House of Representatives might resemble the House of Commons. But the differences are profound. In the British system the Crown, acting...

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