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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

philosophy

philosophy  

(Greek, love of knowledge or wisdom)The study of the most general and abstract features of the world and categories with which we think: mind, matter, reason, proof, truth, etc. In philosophy, the ...
Ornament and pattern

Ornament and pattern   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
7,818 words
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4

...: “ The Conquering Lion, the Life Cycle of a Symbol, ” Oriens , xvii (1964), pp. 161–71 E. Baer : Sphinxes and Harpies in Medieval Islamic Art (Jerusalem, 1965) E. Baer : “ The Suaire de St Lazare: An Early Datable Hispano-Islamic Embroidery, ” Orient. A. , n. s. xiii (1967), pp. 36–49 E. Baer : “ Fish-pond Ornaments on Persian and Mamluk Metal Vessels, ” Bull. SOAS , xxxi (1968), pp. 14–27 E. Baer : “ The ‘Pila’ of Játiva: A Document of Secular Urban Art in Western Islam, ” Kst Orients , vii (1970–71), pp. 144–66 E. Baer : “An Islamic Inkwell in the...

Israel

Israel   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
960 words

...skills, Bezalel’s Persian knotted rugs in both wool and silk soon became remarkably successful. Textiles and embroidery also long play a major role in all walks of Palestinian life, from townsfolk and villagers to the Bedouin ( see Palestine ). The history of Islamic art has been taught for decades at a number of Israeli universities by such eminent scholars as leo ary Mayer , eva Baer , Miriam Rosen-Ayalon and Rachel Millstein. Several museums in Israel also maintain significant holdings of Islamic art. The L. A. Mayer Museum for Islamic Art, founded in ...

Subject matter

Subject matter   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
13,008 words
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4

...Aboensis, 16 (Stockholm, 1996), pp. 219–27 R. Shani : A Monumental Manifestation of the Shī῾ite Faith in late Twelfth-Century Iran: The Case of the Ganbad-I ῾Alawiyān, Hamadān, Oxford Studies in Islamic Art , 11 (Oxford, 1996) E. Baer : “ Female Images in Early Islam, ” Damas. Mitt., xi (1999), pp. 13–24 E. Baer : “ The Human Figure in Early Islamic Art: Some Preliminary Remarks, ” Muqarnas, xvi (1999), pp. 32–41 E. Koch : “The Just Hunter: Renaissance Calendar Illustrations and the Representation of the Mughal Hunt,” Islam and the Italian...

Narrative art

Narrative art   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,417 words

...of Medieval Islamic Objects,” Pictorial Narrative in Antiquity and the Middle Ages , ed. H. L. Kessler and M. S. Simpson , Stud. Hist. A., xvi (Washington, DC, 1985), pp. 131–49 A. S. Melikian-Chirvani : “ Khwaje Mirak Naqqash, ” J. Asiat. , cclxxvi (1988), pp. 97–146 E. Baer : Ayyubid Metalwork with Christian Images (Leiden, 1989) P. Chelkowski : “ Narrative Painting and Painting Recitation in Qajar Iran, ” Muqarnas , vi (1989), pp. 98–111 S. P. Verma : Painting under Akbar as Narrative Art (Delhi, 1997) N. N. Khoury : “ Narratives of the Holy...

Arts, the Liberal

Arts, the Liberal   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
590 words

...wrote an allegory in which the seven Liberal Arts were personified. This became the basis of the medieval educational system. No student might proceed to study theology until the Trivium and the Quadrivium had been mastered. The Trivium involved rather more than is implied by the bare names of the subjects; Grammar, for instance, extended to the classics and philosophy as well as the technical basis of correct language; in the Quadrivium, Mathematics underlay the study of all the other subjects, including Music. Representations of the Liberal Arts are many. One...

Ghaznavid

Ghaznavid   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,424 words

... and J. Sourdel-Thomine : Lashkari Bazar , 3 vols. (Paris, 1978) J. Sourdel-Thomine : “A propos du cénotaphe de Mahmūd à Ghazna (Afghanistan),” Essays in Islamic Art and Architecture in Honor of Katharina Otto-Dorn , ed. A. Daneshvari (Malibu, 1981), pp. 127–35 E. Baer : “ Wider Aspects of Some Ghaznavid Bronzes, ” Riv. Stud. Orient. , lix (1985), pp. 1–15 T. Allen : “ Notes on Bust, ” Iran , xxvi–xxviii (1988–90) H. Edwards : “ The Ribāṭ of ῾Alī b. Karmākh, ” Iran , xxix (1991), pp. 85–94 S. S. Blair : The Monumental Inscriptions of Early...

Lacquer

Lacquer   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,468 words
Illustration(s):
1

...London, Bernheimer F.A. Ltd., 1986) B. W. Robinson : “ Qajar Lacquer, ” Muqarnas , vi (1989), pp. 131–46 B. W. Robinson : “Lacquer in the University of Oxford,” Islamic Art in the Ashmolean Museum , ed. J. Allan , Oxford Studies in Islamic Art, x/2 (Oxford, 1995), pp. 45–61 E. Baer : “ Traditionalism or Forgery: A Note on Persian Lacquer Painting, ” Artibus Asiae , lv/3 (1995), pp. 343–79 N. D. Khalili , B. W. Robinson and T. Stanley : Lacquer of the Islamic Lands (1996), xxii of The Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art (London, 1992– ) L. S....

Arabesque

Arabesque   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,084 words
Illustration(s):
1

...an Ornament (Graz, 1976) S. Morison : “Venice and the Arabesque Ornament,” Selected Essays on the History of Letter-forms in Manuscript and Print , ed. D. McKitterick (Cambridge, 1981), pp. 142–58 T. Allen : Five Essays on Islamic Art (Sebastopol, CA, 1988), pp. 1–9, 52–4 E. Baer : Islamic Ornament (Edinburgh, 1998) O. Grabar : The Mediation of Ornament (Princeton, 1998) M. Khazaie : “ The Source and Religious Symbolism of the Arabesque in Medieval Islamic Art of Persia, ” Cent. Asiat. J. , xlix/1 (2005), pp. 27–50 S. S. Blair and J. M. Bloom : ...

Christian art in the Islamic world

Christian art in the Islamic world   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,700 words

...been either Armenians living in Isfahan or Europeans attached to the various East India companies resident in this quarter. A. S. Atiya : The Arabic Manuscripts of Mount Sinai (Baltimore, 1955) E. Pauty : Les bois sculptés des églises coptes (époque fatimide) (Cairo, 1930) E. Baer : Ayyubid Metalwork with Christian Images [Supplements to Muqarnas ] (Leiden, 1989) E. Grube and others: Cobalt and Lustre: The First Centuries of Islamic Pottery (1994), ix of The Nasser D. Khalili Collection of Islamic Art , ed. J. Raby (Oxford, 1992–), no. 19 [oil lamps]...

Goes, Hugo van der

Goes, Hugo van der   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,056 words

...and in the right wing his wife, Maria Baroncelli with her daughter, and their patrons, SS Mary Magdalene and Margaret. Behind the donors stretches a wide landscape with tiny figures of the pregnant Virgin supported by S. Joseph, followed by the ass she had been riding, and under bare leafless trees the Magi's servant enquires the way. The adventurous colour, ranging from the red of S. Joseph's robe, the deep blue of the Virgin's dress, the iridescence of the angels' wings and their robes, some white, some pale blue and the cluster of foremost ones in dazzling...

Samson

Samson   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
907 words

...and named him Samson. When Samson grew up, he went to a Philistine town where he saw a woman who pleased him; he told his parents to get her for him as a wife. Their protests were useless. When on his way to the town to visit her he was attacked by a lion, which he killed with his bare hands, and when he was returning to marry her, he found that bees had built a hive in the carcass. He did not tell his parents either about the lion or the bees, and at the marriage feast he made a wager with thirty guests of the bride that they could not solve his riddle: ‘Out of...

Metalwork

Metalwork   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
30,062 words
Illustration(s):
22

... (Washington, DC, 1976) J. W. Allan : Persian Metal Technology, 700–1300 a.d . (London, 1979) J. W. Allan : Islamic Metalwork: The Nuhad Es-Said Collection (London, 1982) A. S. Melikian-Chirvani : Islamic Metalwork from the Iranian World, 8–18th Centuries (London, 1982) E. Baer : Metalwork in Medieval Islamic Art (Albany, NY, 1983) E. Atıl , W. T. Chase and P. Jett : Islamic Metalwork in the Freer Gallery of Art (Washington, DC, 1985) Pots and Pans: A Colloquium on Precious Metals and Ceramic s, Oxford, 1985 M. S. Simpson : “ Narrative Allusion...

Abbasid

Abbasid   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,471 words
Illustration(s):
1

...valiantly imitated Tang splashwares and celadons but with a diagnostic change: the Chinese emphasis on form, body, touch—even the sound a piece made when struck—was replaced, at least in part, by applied decoration not encountered in the prototype. This change of emphasis lays bare the profoundly different principles of Abbasid taste. The Islamic invention of the technically difficult craft of luster painting transformed pottery and allowed for the vulgarization of more expensive art forms and materials that became characteristic of Islamic art. The other...

tree

tree   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,058 words

...aspen, but can be a resinous shrub about 20 ft. high. The Arbor Vitae or Tree of Life is a symbolic term for the wood of the cross, and is linked to the rite of the Veneration of the Cross, which is part of the Good Friday rite, recorded as early as the 4th century in Jerusalem by the pilgrim Etheria . Its counterpart is the arbor mortis , tree of death, the tree on which Judas hanged himself. The so-called Judas Tree, which blooms at Eastertide with red blossoms on the bare wood, is popularly believed to be the arbor mortis . The Apostle Jude, in his...

Egypt, Flight into, and Return from Egypt

Egypt, Flight into, and Return from Egypt   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,213 words

...called my son out of Egypt’. The second prophecy, in Matt. 2: 23, is one for which no prophet has been identified; the term Nazorean (AV and Vg. Nazarene) refers not only to a man from Nazareth, but was also a Jewish name given to followers of Christ, as in Acts 24: 5. From the bare account in Matt. 2: 13–15 a complex iconography has emerged, increased by picturesque details from the Apocryphal Gospels . The earliest representation of the story is a partial one in the mosaics on the Triumphal Arch of Sta Maria Maggiore, Rome, of 432–40, which pad out the...

Geography and trade

Geography and trade   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,572 words
Illustration(s):
3

...climate of the Middle East and North Africa created two crucial problems: severely limited possibilities for dense occupation of the land, and a consequent need for widely scattered settlements, each with a narrow resource base of its own, to exchange goods in order to get beyond bare subsistence. I. Settlement patterns . II. Commerce and communications . I. Settlement patterns . This vast region is characterized by an acute scarcity of water—90% is mountain, desert or semi-arid steppe. Water is concentrated in widely scattered areas. Thus Middle Eastern...

Piero della Francesca

Piero della Francesca (1410/20–92)   Reference library

The Oxford Dictionary of Christian Art and Architecture (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
1,107 words

...to popular superstition, He wears a coral necklace with a little coral branch hanging from it—not just a teething comforter, but an amulet against the Evil Eye. In the noble fresco of the Resurrection (Sansepolcro) the symbolism is stressed by the contrast between the bare trees and earth on the left and the trees in leaf and the sprouting hillside on the right, and the impressive Christ rises by His own supernatural power from the tomb, over the four soldiers—two sleeping, one staring at Him in astonishment, the other hiding his face from the...

Patronage

Patronage   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
4,313 words
Illustration(s):
3

...1969), pp. 47–79 C. Cahen : “Nomades et sédentaires dans le monde musulman du milieu du moyen âge,” Islamic Civilization, A.D. 950–1150 , ed. D. H. Richards (Oxford, 1973), pp. 93–104 M. Lombard : Les Textiles dans le monde musulman du VIIe au XIIe siècle (Paris, 1978) G. Baer : Fellah and Townsman in the Middle East: Studies in Social History (London, 1981) A. L. Udovitch , ed.: The Islamic Middle East, 700–1900: Studies in Economic and Social History (Princeton, 1981) A. M. Khazanov : Nomads and the Outside World (Cambridge, 1983) M. Brett : “...

Stucco and plasterwork

Stucco and plasterwork   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Religion
Length:
2,591 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the vestibule was supported by athletes in loincloths, couchant rams and bare-breasted beauties. The finest stuccos were found in the private audience chamber within the bath-hall, where the walls were covered with carpet-like panels of exquisite beauty and the dome was decorated with birds, winged horses and a striking arrangement of six human heads emerging from acanthus leaves (see fig. 1). Stucco grilles and tracery, which had been unknown in the pre-Islamic architecture of the Mediterranean region, also became common in this period and continued to be...

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