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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Agamben, Giorgio

Agamben, Giorgio (1942)   Reference library

Julia Ng

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,834 words

...Agamben calls “form-of-life.” “Form-of-life” is the counterpart to the biological existence that, ever since the archaic origins of the modern state, has been isolated as the “bare” factual existence over whose end the law has the power to decide and whose expendability is therefore included in the city for the perpetuation of sovereign power. Where “bare life” has become the dominant form of life, every other form of life—the worker, the student, the woman, and so forth—is recast either as an abstraction irrelevant to sustaining the life of the polis , or as...

Sensation

Sensation   Reference library

Gary Hatfield

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,713 words

...product that is of bare sensory qualities and may or may not have a spatial character. Perception is directed at objects, includes spatial organization, and may or may not include identification of objects. Let us survey the historical development of these notions. History of the Concept. Although the stark distinction between sensation and perception arose in the early modern period, its background is in ancient and medieval theories of perception, which discussed the subjectivity of appearances and the distinction between a bare impression and judgmental...

Cooper, Anthony Ashley

Cooper, Anthony Ashley (1671–1713)   Reference library

Dabney Townsend

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
1,279 words

...Shaftesbury advocated a Neoplatonic form of classicism. His first published work was an introduction to a collection of sermons by Benjamin Whichcote, and he was familiar with the Cambridge Platonists. The internal sense that Shaftesbury introduces into his Neoplatonism is not bare sense perception, and it undoubtedly retains something of earlier, Augustinian connotations. Augustine, too, spoke of an interior sense that “is in some kind of way a ruler and judge among the other senses … The interior sense judges the bodily senses, approving their integrity...

Lukács, György

Lukács, György (1885–1971)   Reference library

György Márkus

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,574 words

...but also offers a defetishized understanding of it in a form that is in principle available for everyone. At the same time, the great artistic legacy of the past makes reexperienceable the historical path of the development of human self- and world-understanding, laying bare our own historicity. Art is the living memory and the actual self-consciousness of humankind. [ See also Marxism ; and Realism . ] Bibliography Works by Lukács A modern dráma fejlödésének története (History of the Development of Modern Drama). 2 vols. Budapest: Kisfalud...

Holocaust

Holocaust   Reference library

Ernst van Alphen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,589 words
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...aura, after Auschwitz it suddenly appeared to be a shockingly frivolous occupation. This explains why for many years literary representations of the Holocaust were especially valued if they made people think of literature as little as possible. The mode of writing had to be bare and realistic. Fictionalizing was taboo, and ego-documents, personal testimonies modeled on journalistic or documentary accounts, were supposed to be the most adequate and proper genre for representations of the Holocaust. Yet, when Adorno’s statement recurred in many contexts as...

Chinese Aesthetics

Chinese Aesthetics   Reference library

Haun Saussy, Susan H. Bush, and Ban Wang

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,337 words
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5

...human life existence and attempted to bring cultural and socially sedimented factors back into what looked like an abstract notion of bare life based on biological considerations. Aesthetic experience stems, Zhang argues, not from a bare, zero-degree life, but from incessant activities in human self-creation and in creating the world. Aesthetic experience marks a higher and expressive moment when art, culture, and human freedom come to fruition. Zhang redeploys the notion of practice to inject humanizing, socializing action into the notion of bare life but...

Sentimental

Sentimental   Reference library

James Chandler

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,572 words

...it, a practice of “laying bare” its devices even as they are employed. This laying bare of the device in Sterne is properly associated with his all-consuming habits of reflexivity, and this reflexivity or meta-discourse in Sterne is best understood as a hallmark of the sentimental that Schiller would later call “reflection,” a certain redoubling of the image of representation. In such acts of redoubling, Sterne modifies an older tradition of wit as the yoking of disparate images, and he does so by his reflexive practice of laying bare devices, often in...

Trauma

Trauma   Reference library

Margaret Iversen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,974 words
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1

...the idea of exposure is a condition of our creaturely condition in modernity, an ethical attitude and an important aspect of the aesthetics of trauma. [ See also Barthes, Roland ; Freud, Sigmund ; Holocaust ; Lacan, Jacques Marie ; and Sublime . ] Bibliography Baer, Ulrich . Spectral Evidence: The Photography of Trauma . Cambridge, Mass., and London: MIT Press, 2002. Barthes, Roland . Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography . Translated by Richard Howard . New York: Hill and Wang, 1981. Benjamin, Walter . “Little History of Photography...

Portraiture

Portraiture   Reference library

Richard Brilliant and Ernst van Alphen

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
5,834 words
Illustration(s):
3

...want to see themselves portrayed, the comic book will do. Betty , 1988 (oil on canvas), Gerhard Richter. © gerhard richter 2013 / saint louis art museum, missouri, usa / funds given by mr. and mrs. r. crosby kemper jr. through the crosby kemper foundations, the arthur and helen baer charitable foundation, mr. and mrs. van-lear black iii, anabeth calkins and john weil, mr. and mrs. gary wolff, the hon. and mrs. thomas f. eagleton; museum purchase, dr. and mrs. harold j. joseph, and mrs. edward mallinckrodt, by exchange The deconstruction of the portrait by Pop...

Utopia

Utopia   Reference library

Sean Cubitt

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,308 words

...on the accounts of voyages undertaken by Bougainville and Cook in the Pacific, these panels depict mythically alluring islands of Polynesia seen through the optic of the French rococo and perhaps the “noble savage” of Rousseau’s Social Contract . Graceful island maidens dance bare-breasted among flora derived from French Caribbean possessions, while figures from a dozen islands are placed in almost exclusively idyllic surrounds and behavior. Only one panel of the twenty produced shows, in the far distance, the death of Cook in Hawaii as it were the grain in...

Caricature

Caricature   Reference library

Michèle Hannoosh

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,272 words
Illustration(s):
1

...art or any similarly “sacred” image, showing it to be a mere object; the disfiguration lays bare the transfiguration. Specific features of Baudelaire’s aesthetic also recur in Mikhail Bakhtin’s influential theory of the grotesque: the reflexivity of laughter, which implicates the one who laughs as well as the object of laughter; the ambivalent and contradictory nature of grotesque images, which incorporate old and new, death and rebirth, ugliness and fullness of life; the overcoming of isolation that they effect, integrating the grotesque body with the world...

Hermeneutics

Hermeneutics   Reference library

Gerald L. Bruns

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,656 words

...is also true in Gadamer’s analysis, where understanding the other only begins when we enter into the play of question and answer that our experience of alterity or the refractoriness of the other opens up. But in this event the other does not give up its alterity; it is not laid bare. On the contrary, understanding can now only be clarified in terms of “being-with” the other (Mitsein) . Understanding means learning how to live with differences without reducing them to the same. This is perhaps the ultimate point of Gadamer’s principle that “understanding is...

Robotics

Robotics   Reference library

Chris Chesher

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,828 words

...nod its head, spin its eyes, raise its arms, play music, move, and more. In the tradition of Vaucanson’s duck, it could defecate dried white beans and urinate on the floor. Unlike the duck, though, Paik’s robot abandoned all pretence of perfectly mimicking life. Jerry-rigged mechanisms moved its stripped bare skeletal presence in ungainly jerks. It performed sequences of actions by replaying recorded movements on a tape recorder. Paik considered the robot as a tool to enable happenings, and he toured Europe and the United States creating great surprise in the...

Ritual

Ritual   Reference library

Kyrah Malika Daniels

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,995 words

... “Ritual, Time, and Eternity.” Zygon 27, no. 1 (2007): 5–30. Seligman, Adam B. , Robert P. Weller , Michael J. Puett , and Bennett Simon . Ritual and Its Consequences: An Essay on the Limits of Sincerity . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. Smith, Jonathan Z. “The Bare Facts of Ritual.” History of Religions 20, nos. 1–2 (1980): 112–127. Turner, Victor . The Ritual Process: Structure and Anti-Structure . New Brunswick, N.J.: Aldine Transaction, 2008. van Gennep, Arnold . Rites of Passage: A Classical Study of Cultural Celebrations . Translated...

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von (1775–1854)   Reference library

Michael G. Vater

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,716 words

...argued that because the artist’s activity—aesthetic intuition—taps into the primary divided energy that first produces an objective world for the I and then ceaselessly conquers its objectivity by the I’s knowledge and action, it is not a case of ordinary activity but a laying bare of foundations. What kinship can there be between the ground of being and the artist’s activity? In the 1800 System , Schelling utilized a vocabulary given currency by Kant and Fichte for naming the ultimate active ground of being. Kant had defined sensible intuition in...

Systems Theory

Systems Theory   Reference library

Eve Meltzer

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,127 words
Illustration(s):
1

...others—approaches the work of art as both representing the world as a system, and critically intervening into it. The last of these works, for example, exposes a system of planned impoverishment of urban neighborhoods by a group of real estate speculators. Through its aesthetic of bare informational record, Shapolsky et al. Manhattan Real Estate Holdings purports to make visible the injustices of otherwise invisible social practices and relations. In 1968 , an Italian publication, “La sfida del sistema” (The Challenge of the System), questioned artists about...

Constructivism

Constructivism   Reference library

Daniel Herwitz

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,586 words
Illustration(s):
1

...agent, as if what was at stake was the thrusting of new and experimental modes of construction onto the world that would abolish the old and create the radically new. The utopianism residing at the basis of Constructivist art derives from the rhetoric in this process of laying bare the work’s internal structure, of designing it so that it gives the impression of a world under transparent construction. Gabo, a theorist of Constructivism and chief writer of the Constructivist Manifesto ( 1924 ), spoke of the art object as a “demonstration” of its own...

Collectivism

Collectivism   Reference library

Maria-Alina Asavei

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,411 words
Illustration(s):
1

...individual/subjective experience of liking or disliking), whereas collectivism emphasizes a sense of togetherness and communicability occasioned by a communal experience that takes place on dialogical grounds. According to Kant, all “genuine” art (art that is not directed to the bare subjective gratification of the viewer) aims to appeal to the viewer’s sensus communis . Kant’s aesthetic postulate of a sensus communis serves as the ground for his theory of disinterestedness and universality of aesthetic judgment regarding beauty’s apprehension. Still, at...

Fashion

Fashion   Reference library

Anne Hollander, Anne Hollander, Richard Martin, and Marie-Aude Baronian

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
13,019 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and enigmatic, however its opaqueness remains somehow troubling; thinking fashion enables us to understand these “troubles” and lay bare its disenchanting and enchanting moments. Bibliography Arnold, Rebecca . Fashion: A Very Short Introduction . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Barthes, Roland . The Fashion System . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983. Baudelaire, Charles . The Painter of Modern Life and Other Essays . London: Phaidon, 1995. Baudrillard, Jean . For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign . Saint Louis, Mo.:...

Public Art

Public Art   Reference library

Cher Krause Knight

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,311 words
Illustration(s):
1

...objects, seeking to rupture normative social contexts to increase awareness of their constructs, protest their constraints, or simply reinvigorate daily life by breaking routine patterns ( Thompson and Sholette, 2004 ). In London’s Trafalgar Square, the Fourth Plinth has been the site of many interventions. A huge pedestal intended to be crowned with an equestrian sculpture, the Fourth Plinth was bare from the mid-nineteenth century until 1999 , when the first of the Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce’s (RSA’s)...

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