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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Engelberg, Burkhard

Engelberg, Burkhard (c. 1450)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2013

...Copenhagen, Stat. Mus. Kst). Bibliography N. Lieb : ‘Burkhard Engelberg’, Lebensbild. Bayer. Schwaben , iii (1954), pp. 117–52 J. Julier : Studien zur spätgotischen Baukunst am Oberrhein , Heidelberger Kunstgeschichtliche Abhandlungen, n. s., xiii (Heidelberg, 1978) W. Baer , ed.: Augsburger Stadtlexikon (Augsburg, 1985), p. 97 F. Bischoff : Burkhard Engelberg und die süddeutsche Architektur um 1500: Anmerkungen zur sozialen Stellung und Arbeitsweise spätgotischer Steinmetzen und Werkmeister (diss., U. Bamberg, 1987) F. Bischoff : ‘Burkhard Engelberg...

Heintz

Heintz   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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2013

... ( c. ? 1585 ; Berne, Hist. Mus.) was carved by Heintz, it would show that he had maintained contacts with his north-Italian homeland, where saint figures were produced that have a realistic character very close to that of the Berne sculpture. Bibliography Thieme–Becker C. H. Baer : Die Künstdenkmäler des Kantons Basel-Stadt, i: Vorgeschichtliche, römische und fränkische Zeit; Geschichte und Stadtbild; Befestigungen, Areal und Rheinbrücke; Rathaus und Staatsarchiv , Kstdkml. Schweiz (Basle, 1932), pp. 352, 364, 441–5 L. Mojon : Die Künstdenkmäler des Kantons...

Alcobaça Abbey

Alcobaça Abbey   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
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991 words
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...explain the buttressing of the aisle walls and the treatment of the main arcade. Massive cruciform piers support chamfered corbels, from which the vault supports rise. In the absence of the original choir-screens, this arrangement creates a space in which the present austerity of bare stone is powerfully asserted. The rib vaulting of the aisles and transepts creates an impression of great lightness in relation to the thickness of the walls. The building is lit from the aisles and Alcobaça Abbey.  View of the nave, begun 1158. Photo credit: Mathieu Glachant...

Ivory

Ivory   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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2013

...: Les ivoires gothiques français (Paris, 1924) T. K. Penniman : Pictures of Ivory and Other Animal Teeth, Bone, and Antler, Occasional Papers on Technology , v (Oxford, 1952) H. Hodges : Artifacts (London, 1964) C. I. A. Ritchie : Ivory Carving (London, 1969) N. S. Baer and L. J. Majewski : ‘Ivory and Related Materials’, A. & Archaeol. Tech. Abstr. , viii/2 (1970), pp. 229–72 R. Silverberg : Mammoths, Mastodons and Man (London, 1970) H. J. Plenderleith and A. E. A. Werner : The Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art (Oxford, 1971)...

Augsburg

Augsburg   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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...Handwerk in Augsburg beim Übergang der Stadt an das Königreich Bayern: Städtischen Gewerbe unter dem Einfluss politischer Veränderungen’, Abh. Gesch. Stadt Augsburg , xxv (1979) J. Wilhelm : ‘Augsburger Wandmalerei, 1368–1530’, Abh. Gesch. Stadt Augsburg , xxix (1983) W. Baer and others, eds: Augsburger Stadtlexikon: Geschichte, Gesellschaft, Kultur, Recht, Wirtschaft (Augsburg, 1985) M. Rauch : Handwerk in Augsburg (Augsburg, 1985) P. Fassl : ‘Konfession, Wirtschaft und Politik: Von der Reichstadt zur Industriestadt, Augsburg, 1750–1850’, Abh...

Basle

Basle   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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2013

...just south of the present one. The church (rest. 1975–81) has a three-aisled nave with a well-lit choir five bays long. Since 1894 it has housed the Historisches Museum, with an extensive collection of ecclesiastical art including the cathedral treasury. Bibliography LM C. H. Baer : Die Kunstdenkmäler des Kantons Basel-Stadt , Kstdkml. Schweiz, i (Basle, 1932, rev. 1971) C. A. Müller : Die stadtbefestigung von Basel : beschreibung der wehranlagen nach alten plänen und bildern (Basle, 1956) M. Alioth , U. Barth , and D. Huber : Basler Stadtgeschichte...

Passion of Christ

Passion of Christ   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,659 words
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1

...and mortuary contexts (for example, on epitaphs). Iconographic innovations across western and eastern Europe resulted in a broad range of new types that included life-size carved figures of the Man of Sorrows, often shown holding the instruments of the Passion ( Arma christi ); carved images of the Sorrowing Virgin holding the dead Christ in her lap (known by the old Italian word, Pietà ); Mary baring her breast alongside Christ displaying his wounds before the throne of God (the so-called Double Intercession); and the trinitarian image of a mournful God the...

Jewish

Jewish   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2013

...and southern Russia came to house the largest concentration of world Jewry. By the middle of the 19th century 75% of Jewry (5.7 million people) lived in eastern Europe. Bibliography I. Abrahams : Jewish Life in the Middle Ages (New York, 1896/ R 1969) Y. Baer : A History of the Jews of Christian Spain: Their Social, Political and Cultural Life , 2 vols (Philadelphia, 1942) A. Sharf : Byzantine Jewry from Justinian to the Fourth Crusade (London, 1971) E. Ashtor : The Jews of Moslem Spain , 2 vols (Philadelphia, 1975) N. de Lange : Atlas of the...

Montecassino

Montecassino   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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2013

...drapery, drawn with a sketchy line and including large bare panels, compares with both the Bari Exultets and the early 11th-century mosaics of Hosios Loukas. This style persisted into the abbacy of Oderisius ( reg 1087–1105 ) when it is seen in a Breviary ( c. 1099 ; Paris, Bib. Mazarine, MS. 364). In contrast, the Lives of SS Benedict, Maurus, and Scholastica ( 1072–86 ; Rome, Bib. Apostolica, MS. Vat. lat. 1202) includes among c. 100 miniatures a cycle of the Life of St Benedict with illustrations stylistically related to a...

Sutton Hoo

Sutton Hoo   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
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1,887 words
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...was found, was placed in a deep, closely fitting trench and covered by a massive circular mound. A burial chamber, with hangings and floor coverings to offset the bare wood, filled the entire midships area. Nothing remains of the body, but the elaborate possessions found in the chamber suggest that it is a royal grave. All the items excavated are now in the British Museum, London. The daily life of the dead man is reflected by various domestic items, including containers for food and drink. A large cauldron, raised from a single sheet of thin copper alloy,...

Torcello

Torcello   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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2013

...Ravenna. Occidented, it comprises an aisled nave of ten bays, a main apse with an annular crypt and two flanking apsidal chapels; the main arcade, supported by grey marble columns with white marble capitals, stands on a fine opus sectile pavement, dated to the 11th century. The bare brick of the interior and the timber tie-beam roof form a marvellous contrast to the rich colours and sheen of the mosaics. On the walls of the main apse are the Twelve Apostles, with St Heliodorus beneath the central window. In the conch is the tall, standing figure of the Virgin...

Gniezno

Gniezno   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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2013

...narrowly spaced arcades, massive piers, and strong horizontal emphasis in the friezes and cornices separating the arcade from the clerestory. The cornices and delicate shafts, spaced at regular intervals, form rectangular frames enclosing the arches of the main arcade. Above, the bare tracts of wall are broken only by the short, narrow clerestory windows. Pointed niches fill the arcade spandrels of the straight bays, a design reminiscent of triforium arches. These features of Reduktionsgotik , equally visible in the austere exterior, with the flying buttresses...

Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire [Saint-Benoît-de-Fleury], Abbey Church of

Saint-Benoît-sur-Loire [Saint-Benoît-de-Fleury], Abbey Church of   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,272 words
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1

...vault here as in the central vessel (18 m high) and the aisles of the six-bay choir. In the choir the elevation of the apse is continued at clerestory and triforium level, but, because of the drop in the floor level, the arcade is separated from the triforium by a large expanse of bare wall, which may originally have been painted with a fresco cycle. The sanctuary is separated from the choir by a confessional wall. The main transept (38 m long; 19 m high) is barrel-vaulted with two eastern chapels on each arm, but only those on the north side are original; it...

Jewish ritual objects

Jewish ritual objects   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2013

... was usually a small pendant in the shape of a flat crown, while in Turkey it was crescent-shaped, with typical Ottoman decorative motifs (e.g. repoussé silver tas , Izmir, 19th century; Jerusalem, Israel Mus.). The sacredness of the Torah scroll (it could not be touched with the bare hand) gave rise to the yad or Torah pointer. Extant pointers, from the 17th century onwards, are usually narrow, sceptre-like rods terminating in a miniature hand with outstretched index finger. Many pointers were made of costly materials such as silver, coral, or ivory, often...

Lyon

Lyon   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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2013

...second half of the 15th century on the south side of the nave, is the most beautiful example of Flamboyant in the Lyonnais. The exterior is built in fine masonry with re-used Romanesque ashlar at the east end. The west façade is more sober in design than those further north: it is bare, with a flat wall without buttresses and the whole is articulated by a single horizontal line, the balustrade over the portals. To the south-west stands the Manécanterie, a Romanesque construction with delicately carved arcades. Bibliography R. L. Begule and M. C. Guigue : ...

Martini, Simone

Martini, Simone ( b c. 1284)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
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8,021 words
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...painting—the galleries of half-length saints in the windows and the angel figures that gesticulate from their tiny porthole-like medallions. Above the entrance arch, Cardinal Gentile is painted kneeling before his patron St Martin under a ciborium. The saint gravely receives the bare-headed Cardinal, who has tactfully laid his hat aside on the parapet. All of this supports the view that by c. 1310 the mural painting of Assisi was at least as important a factor in the artistic formation of Simone as the tradition of Duccio and that the most distinctive...

Cambridge

Cambridge   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
2,909 words
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...completion of the structure from 1508 ; his executors finished the antechapel and built the high vaults and the exterior battlements and towers. The style of the antechapel differs from the choir by its greater degree of enrichment, a feature of the original design. The choir has bare socle walls where woodwork, or painting as at Eton College Chapel, was intended. Sculpted half figures of angels define the base of an upper zone with tall, transomed, five-light Perpendicular windows. The variation in the tracery after the third bay denotes the arrival of Clerk...

Castle

Castle   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
9,019 words
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...later masonry (e.g. Windsor castle , Arundel, Alnwick, Château-sur-Epte, and Gisors), many more have long been reduced to bare earthworks, and surprisingly few have been systematically excavated (e.g. Hen Domen, Montgomeryshire, and Abinger, Surrey). There are the invaluable representations of mottes on the Bayeux tapestry and a very few precious descriptions. One of the latter is the description by Walter the Archdeacon, in his Life of Bishop John of Therouanne ( d 1130 ), of the motte of the castle of ‘Merchem’ (possibly Merckem, near Dixmunde,...

Jerusalem

Jerusalem   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Art & Architecture, History, Early history (500 CE to 1500)
Length:
9,113 words
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1

...Rock in Jerusalem’, A. Orient. , iii (1959), pp. 33–62 W. Caskel : Der Felsendom und die Wallfahrt nach Jerusalem (Cologne, 1963) P. Soucek : ‘The Temple of Solomon in Islamic Legend and Art’, The Temple of Solomon , ed. J. Gutmann (Missoula, MT, 1976), pp. 73–123 E. Baer : ‘The Mihrab in the Cave of the Dome of the Rock’, Muqarnas , iii (1985), pp. 8–19 O. Grabar : ‘The Meaning of the Dome of the Rock’, The Medieval Mediterranean: Cross-Cultural Contacts , ed. M. J. Chiat and K. L. Reyerson (St Cloud, MN, 1988), pp. 1–10 M. Rosen-Ayalon :...

Dublin

Dublin   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Medieval Art and Architecture

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2013

...beyond. Although awkward in its layout, the plan was of a complexity unprecedented in 12th-century Ireland. The surviving medieval transepts were designed in a cumbersome Late Romanesque style. Even the passageways at triforium and clerestory level provide scant relief for the bareness of the rubble walls, built of local grey calp; for the dressings a yellow oolitic limestone was imported from Dundry near Bristol, a quarry that served many Irish workshops between 1170 and 1300 . The main interest of this part of the building is a group of historiated...

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