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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

United States Intelligence Cultures

United States Intelligence Cultures   Reference library

Hamilton Bean

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,368 words

...entering their specific agencies may help to create shared experiences, understandings, and identities that serve as resources during subsequent interactions. Intense moments of socialization tend to forge impressions about an agency’s “culture” that last throughout one’s career ( Baer 2002 ; Mahle 2004 ; Plame Wilson 2007a ). The second level of discourse positions organizational culture as an explicit topic of concern for both “internal” organizational members and “external” stakeholders. Here, organizational members (often senior officials) may assert “culture”...

Intelligence and Terrorism

Intelligence and Terrorism   Reference library

Erik J. Dahl

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,688 words

...Agency, especially concerning human intelligence, so this school might be called the CIA critics’ school . Recommendations from this view usually emphasize increased attention to HUMINT and covert operations. (For example, Jenkins 2003 ; Gerecht 2004 ; Berkowitz 2005 ; Baer 2005 .) What Went Wrong on 9/11? This typology can help explain the differing views in the literature on one of the most enduring puzzles surrounding the 9/11 attacks: why the attacks had not been anticipated and prevented, even though American intelligence agencies and others...

Navy, U.S

Navy, U.S   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Diplomatic Activities of U.S. Naval Officers, 1798–1883 , 1988. Kenneth Hagan , This People's Navy: The Making of American Sea Power , 1991. Christopher McKee , A Gentlemanly and Honorable Profession: The Creation of the U.S. Naval Officer Corps, 1794–1815 , 1991. George Baer , One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890–1990 , 1994. Edward J. Marolda , By Sea, Air, and Land: An Illustrated History of the United States Navy and the War in Southeast Asia , 1994. Mark Shulman , Navalism and the Emergence of American Sea Power, 1882–1893 ,...

Behavioralism

Behavioralism   Reference library

Inanna Hamati-Ataya

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,011 words

...cognitive tenets, terminology, methodologies, and scholarly ethos, while redefining its relationship to the other social (and the nonsocial) sciences. (For further readings on behavioralism in the development of political science, see Crick 1959 ; Somit and Tanenhaus 1967 ; Baer et al. 1991 ; Gunnell 1993 ; Easton 1997 .) The Terms of the Behavioral Revolution For the behavioralists as well as their critics, the debate around behavioralism was grounded in the opposition and tension between “innovation” and “tradition” ( Eulau 1969 ). The Behavioral...

Sovereignty as a Problematic Conceptual Core

Sovereignty as a Problematic Conceptual Core   Reference library

Rosemary E. Shinko

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,792 words

...and the reduction of life to “bare life” ( Agamben 1998 ; 2005 ), as they apply to state sovereignty, security, and war. The problem with respect to sovereignty is how the concept is implicated in the expansion of state power that enables the state to declare itself the exception to its own legal rules, and to privilege its own survival and security in determining who shall live, who shall die, and who can be sacrificed. Edkins and Pin-Fat ( 2005 :1) have advocated “the refusal to draw lines and the assumption of bare life” as strategies for...

Arms Race

Arms Race   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Sea , 1989. Jon Tetsuro Sumida , In Defence of Naval Supremacy , 1989. B.J.C. McKercher , ed., Arms Limitation and Disarmament , 1992. C.I. Hamilton , The Anglo‐French Naval Rivalry, 1840–1870 , 1993. Volker Berghahn , Germany and the Approach of War in 1914 , 1993. George W. Baer , One Hundred Years of Sea Power , 1994. Daniel Moran Arms Race: Nuclear Arms Race The United States, with Britain, developed atomic weapons during World War II and used them as a means to force Japan's early surrender. The first (and so far last) use of these weapons in...

Geographies of Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing, and War Crimes

Geographies of Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing, and War Crimes   Reference library

Carl T. Dahlman

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,563 words

...A geographical commitment to describing our world therefore includes an ethical responsibility of care in rendering lives and places shattered by political violence. Carl T. Dahlman Miami University References Agamben, G. (1995) Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Agnew, J.A. (1999) Mapping Political Power Beyond the State: Territory, Identity, and Movement in World Politics. Millennium: Journal of International Studies 28 (3), 499–521. Agnew, J.A. (2003) Geopolitics: Re-Visioning World Politics...

Feminism and the Politics of Difference

Feminism and the Politics of Difference   Reference library

Maria O’Reilly

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,981 words

...a “capabilities approach” to gender justice, outlining “basic constitutional principles that should be respected and implemented by the governments of all nations, as a bare minimum of what respect for human dignity requires” ( 2002 :49). She identifies a list of “necessary elements of truly human functioning” ( 2002 :59) that are cross-culturally applicable, including: (1) life; (2) bodily health; (3) bodily integrity; (4) ability to use the senses, imagination, to think and reason; (5) emotional development; (6) practical reason; (7) the ability...

Critical Theory: IR's Engagement with the Frankfurt School and Marxism

Critical Theory: IR's Engagement with the Frankfurt School and Marxism   Reference library

Faruk Yalvaç

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,945 words

...that “theories are for someone and for some purpose” ( Cox 1981 ). As Cox later argued, “there is no such thing as theory in itself, divorced from a standpoint in time and space. When any theory so represents itself, it is the more important to examine it as ideology, and to lay bare its concealed perspective” ( Cox 1986 :207). Critical theorists also indicate how objects of knowledge are intimately linked to theoretical practice itself. Theoretical activity is not only a methodological pursuit but also closely associated with the construction of political...

Prisoners of War

Prisoners of War   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...to know that their families were aware of their fate: all of these helped to make captivity tolerable. Red Cross parcels, in fact, were essential for the prisoners' diet as the Germans, assuming that these supplies would be available, kept the rations they provided to a bare minimum. The ready supply of cigarettes, chocolate, soap and coffee (real not ersatz) also gave the prisoners the capacity to trade with guards and the local population. Once in permanent camps in Germany, the other ranks were deployed on work detachments away from the main camps....

Security Practices

Security Practices   Reference library

Thierry Balzacq, Tugba Basaran, Didier Bigo, Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet, and Christian Olsson

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,959 words

...Basaran , Didier Bigo , Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet , and Christian Olsson University of Louvain, University of Kent, Sciences Po Paris/King’s College London, University of Manchester, and Sciences Po Paris References Agamben, G. (1998) Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life . D. Heller-Roazen , trans. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Agamben, G. (2004) State of Exception . K. Attel , trans. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Albert, M. , Jacobson, D. , and Lapid, Y. (eds.) (2001) Identities, Borders, Orders: Rethinking International...

Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
24,715 words
Illustration(s):
4

...for the supervision of the imperial prisons and the walls of the palace. The support of the tagmata for iconoclasm is evidenced in their disruption of the Ecumenical Council of 786 in Nicaea when troops of the Scholai, the Exkoubitoi, and the other regiments threatened with bare swords the patriarch and bishops gathered in the Church of the Holy Apostles and broke up the council. Two other heavy cavalry regiments were added later, the Vigla and the Hikanatoi. The former was apparently created by Empress Irene (r. 780–802 ) for personal security as a...

Interdependence in International Organization and Global Governance

Interdependence in International Organization and Global Governance   Reference library

Roger A. Coate, Jeffrey A. Griffin, and Steven Elliott-Gower

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
13,444 words

...of power, as well as goals, will vary by issue area. This in turn complicates attempts at issue linkage and affects the nature of international hierarchy and reduces its impact. The existence and importance of transgovernmental, as well as transnational, policy networks lays bare the realist assumption of unitary state actors as well as brings into question the assumption that states act to satisfy some objective national interests. Under conditions of complex interdependence, the role of international organizations and international regimes assumes a new...

International Relations and the Study of History

International Relations and the Study of History   Reference library

Constantinos Koliopoulos

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,374 words

...School thrived on history, placing an explicit premium on the historical understanding of international politics and, at least during its first three decades, emphasizing the elements of continuity in international relations. On the other hand, this historical understanding laid bare the path dependency of many international developments and in this way introduced an element of change in the analysis. Two central concepts in the English School were the international system and the international society (Butterfield and Wight 1966; Bull 1977 ; Wight 1977; Bull...

Historical Sociology

Historical Sociology   Reference library

John M. Hobson, George Lawson, and Justin Rosenberg

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,131 words
Illustration(s):
1

...have a semipermeable membrane that allows ideas from other disciplines in, but blocks substantive traffic out ( Buzan and Little 2001 ). As Buzan and Little argue ( 2001 :20), “when the question is posed: what have other disciplines learned from IR, the cupboard is, if not quite bare, then certainly not well stocked.” Indeed, much of the time, IR scholarship has less engaged in fruitful interchange with other disciplines than served as canon fodder for raiding parties from outside. These “looting and pillaging raids” ( Mann 1995 :555) conjure up an image more...

Western Front

Western Front   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,215 words
Illustration(s):
4

...of Mont St Quentin (north of Péronne) by 2nd Australian Division. Mont St Quentin was the key to the German defence of the line of the Somme. If it was lost the whole German position would be turned and a further retreat would become inevitable. The 2nd Division approached the bare slopes of the Mont on 2 September . Accompanied by a formidable artillery bombardment and skilfully using rifle grenades and trench-mortars to outflank German outpost positions, the troops stormed up the slopes and ejected the German Guards Division from the defences on the...

Feminist Perspectives on Foreign Policy

Feminist Perspectives on Foreign Policy   Reference library

Anne-Marie D'Aoust

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
14,416 words

...the Security of States. International Security (33) (3), 7–45. Hudson, V.M. , and den Boer, A. (2002) A Surplus of Men, a Deficit of Peace: Security and Sex Ratios in Asia's Largest States. International Security (26) (4), 5–38. Hudson, V.M. , and den Boer, A. (2004a) Bare Branches: The Security Implications of Asia's Surplus Male Population . Cambridge: MIT Press. Hudson, V.M. , and Den Boer, A. (2004b) The Security Threat of Asia's Sex Ratios. SAIS Review (24) (2), 27–43. Hudson, V.M. , and Vore, C.S. (1995) Foreign Policy Analysis Yesterday...

Iberia

Iberia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
36,499 words
Illustration(s):
6

...looked on the Iberian cavalcade itself as the secret to understanding a Spanish character that was formed as a consequence of almost constant military, linguistic, and cultural conflict. Though Hispanicists have increasingly distanced themselves from this dichotomy, its bare outlines are still visible in scholarship on Spanish military affairs that tends to view martial developments in the Peninsula as the result of national or European causes. Spanish Scholarship. Studies of Spanish military matters of the central Middle Ages have been severely...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...historical writing continued apace, although it came to be dominated by clergy who were more likely to be affiliated with an ecclesiastical house or church. Local histories complement national, even international, approaches. Many of the sources are actually annals or chronicles, bare-bones litanies of significant events that impinged on the consciousness of the writer tasked with keeping the record. That structure works to the modern historian’s advantage because the descriptions therein are more often free of the thematic doctoring that accompanies more...

demography of the war

demography of the war   Reference library

J. M. Winter

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,549 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the boundary between civilian and military targets in warfare was obliterated. In Asia, as throughout occupied Europe, disease, famine, and indiscriminate bombardment of civilian populations produced a parallel human disaster, the dimensions of which can never be fully known. The bare outlines of this catastrophe are presented in Table 1. Over half of the 50 million men, women , and children who perished in the Second World War were civilians. Demography, Table 1: Approximate war-related deaths of major combatant nations in the Second World War Country...

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