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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

demography of the war

demography of the war   Reference library

J. M. Winter

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
1,549 words
Illustration(s):
1

...the boundary between civilian and military targets in warfare was obliterated. In Asia, as throughout occupied Europe, disease, famine, and indiscriminate bombardment of civilian populations produced a parallel human disaster, the dimensions of which can never be fully known. The bare outlines of this catastrophe are presented in Table 1. Over half of the 50 million men, women , and children who perished in the Second World War were civilians. Demography, Table 1: Approximate war-related deaths of major combatant nations in the Second World War Country...

Canada

Canada   Reference library

J. L. Granatstein

The Oxford Companion to World War II

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003

...Thus when the federal election was held on 11 June 1945 , fortuitously after the war in Europe had ended and before Canada's promise of a division for the Pacific war had time to be implemented. King's government was re-elected with 41% of the popular vote and 125 seats, a bare majority. In Quebec, however, King won 53 of 65 seats and, as one academic noted in an election analysis, ‘Quebec Saves Our King’. It was precisely true, though the Liberals did win more seats outside Quebec than any other party. 4. Canada–US relations Before the outbreak of the...

Navy, U.S

Navy, U.S   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Diplomatic Activities of U.S. Naval Officers, 1798–1883 , 1988. Kenneth Hagan , This People's Navy: The Making of American Sea Power , 1991. Christopher McKee , A Gentlemanly and Honorable Profession: The Creation of the U.S. Naval Officer Corps, 1794–1815 , 1991. George Baer , One Hundred Years of Sea Power: The U.S. Navy, 1890–1990 , 1994. Edward J. Marolda , By Sea, Air, and Land: An Illustrated History of the United States Navy and the War in Southeast Asia , 1994. Mark Shulman , Navalism and the Emergence of American Sea Power, 1882–1893 ,...

Arms Race

Arms Race   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to American Military History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004

...Sea , 1989. Jon Tetsuro Sumida , In Defence of Naval Supremacy , 1989. B.J.C. McKercher , ed., Arms Limitation and Disarmament , 1992. C.I. Hamilton , The Anglo‐French Naval Rivalry, 1840–1870 , 1993. Volker Berghahn , Germany and the Approach of War in 1914 , 1993. George W. Baer , One Hundred Years of Sea Power , 1994. Daniel Moran Arms Race: Nuclear Arms Race The United States, with Britain, developed atomic weapons during World War II and used them as a means to force Japan's early surrender. The first (and so far last) use of these weapons in...

Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
24,715 words
Illustration(s):
4

...for the supervision of the imperial prisons and the walls of the palace. The support of the tagmata for iconoclasm is evidenced in their disruption of the Ecumenical Council of 786 in Nicaea when troops of the Scholai, the Exkoubitoi, and the other regiments threatened with bare swords the patriarch and bishops gathered in the Church of the Holy Apostles and broke up the council. Two other heavy cavalry regiments were added later, the Vigla and the Hikanatoi. The former was apparently created by Empress Irene (r. 780–802 ) for personal security as a...

Iberia

Iberia   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
36,499 words
Illustration(s):
6

...looked on the Iberian cavalcade itself as the secret to understanding a Spanish character that was formed as a consequence of almost constant military, linguistic, and cultural conflict. Though Hispanicists have increasingly distanced themselves from this dichotomy, its bare outlines are still visible in scholarship on Spanish military affairs that tends to view martial developments in the Peninsula as the result of national or European causes. Spanish Scholarship. Studies of Spanish military matters of the central Middle Ages have been severely...

Britain

Britain   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Military History, Social sciences, Warfare and Defence
Length:
55,708 words
Illustration(s):
11

...historical writing continued apace, although it came to be dominated by clergy who were more likely to be affiliated with an ecclesiastical house or church. Local histories complement national, even international, approaches. Many of the sources are actually annals or chronicles, bare-bones litanies of significant events that impinged on the consciousness of the writer tasked with keeping the record. That structure works to the modern historian’s advantage because the descriptions therein are more often free of the thematic doctoring that accompanies more...

Diplomacy and Intelligence

Diplomacy and Intelligence   Reference library

John D. Stempel

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
4,075 words

...discussion can be found in Weiner ( 2007 ) . The 9/11 bombing raised two strategic questions: Why did this happen and how can we prevent it from occurring again ( Strasser 2004 )? How should one meet and destroy the terrorist threat? Resulting books by analysts ( Baer 2002 ; Clarke 2004 ) and intelligence managers ( Odom 2006 ; Tenet 2007 ) as well as journalists ( Bamford 2004 ; Ricks 2006 ; Risen 2006 ) cover the ground thoroughly. Beyond the intelligence questions, the issue of accuracy and integrity has come up in the...

United States Intelligence Cultures

United States Intelligence Cultures   Reference library

Hamilton Bean

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,368 words

...entering their specific agencies may help to create shared experiences, understandings, and identities that serve as resources during subsequent interactions. Intense moments of socialization tend to forge impressions about an agency’s “culture” that last throughout one’s career ( Baer 2002 ; Mahle 2004 ; Plame Wilson 2007a ). The second level of discourse positions organizational culture as an explicit topic of concern for both “internal” organizational members and “external” stakeholders. Here, organizational members (often senior officials) may assert “culture”...

Intelligence and Terrorism

Intelligence and Terrorism   Reference library

Erik J. Dahl

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,688 words

...Agency, especially concerning human intelligence, so this school might be called the CIA critics’ school . Recommendations from this view usually emphasize increased attention to HUMINT and covert operations. (For example, Jenkins 2003 ; Gerecht 2004 ; Berkowitz 2005 ; Baer 2005 .) What Went Wrong on 9/11? This typology can help explain the differing views in the literature on one of the most enduring puzzles surrounding the 9/11 attacks: why the attacks had not been anticipated and prevented, even though American intelligence agencies and others...

Articulations of Sovereignty

Articulations of Sovereignty   Reference library

Claudia Aradau

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,153 words

...line of argumentation follows a more historical and pluralist approach to sovereignty to offer different understandings of what sovereignty can mean. Connolly ( 2005 ) , for example, criticizes Agamben for proposing one model of sovereignty understood through exception and “bare life” that leads to a historical impasse where no resistance is possible. He argues that sovereignty is not found in one site, but is composed of a “plurality of forces circulating through and under the positional sovereignty of the official arbitrating body” ( Connolly 2005 :145)....

Behavioralism

Behavioralism   Reference library

Inanna Hamati-Ataya

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,011 words

...cognitive tenets, terminology, methodologies, and scholarly ethos, while redefining its relationship to the other social (and the nonsocial) sciences. (For further readings on behavioralism in the development of political science, see Crick 1959 ; Somit and Tanenhaus 1967 ; Baer et al. 1991 ; Gunnell 1993 ; Easton 1997 .) The Terms of the Behavioral Revolution For the behavioralists as well as their critics, the debate around behavioralism was grounded in the opposition and tension between “innovation” and “tradition” ( Eulau 1969 ). The Behavioral...

Sovereignty as a Problematic Conceptual Core

Sovereignty as a Problematic Conceptual Core   Reference library

Rosemary E. Shinko

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,792 words

...and the reduction of life to “bare life” ( Agamben 1998 ; 2005 ), as they apply to state sovereignty, security, and war. The problem with respect to sovereignty is how the concept is implicated in the expansion of state power that enables the state to declare itself the exception to its own legal rules, and to privilege its own survival and security in determining who shall live, who shall die, and who can be sacrificed. Edkins and Pin-Fat ( 2005 :1) have advocated “the refusal to draw lines and the assumption of bare life” as strategies for...

Energy and Security

Energy and Security   Reference library

John S. Duffield

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
9,650 words

...of states toward countries and regions on which they are dependent for energy imports. For example, not all studies of US policy toward Saudi Arabia are primarily motivated by an interest in the security implications of that relationship, but some are (e.g., Long 1985 ; Baer 2003 ; Bronson 2006 ). Outside the scope of this review are works primarily concerned with the environmental, social, or human impacts of the normal operation of energy systems, including production, transportation, and consumption. Thus it does not address the causes or consequences...

Covert Action

Covert Action   Reference library

Jennifer D. Kibbe

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,483 words

...to combat the new, post–Cold War threats posed by terrorism, drug trafficking, information warfare, and economic espionage ( Berkowitz and Goodman 1998 ; Johnson 2000 ). The post–9/11 branch of the field focuses on the role that covert action has played in the “war on terror” ( Baer 2002 ; Clarke 2004 ), including specific cases such as Afghanistan ( Schroen 2005 ) and the increasing covert responsibilities being assumed by the military’s special operations forces ( Kibbe 2004 , 2007 ). OSS Although much of the covert action literature focuses almost...

Critical Theory, Security, and Emancipation

Critical Theory, Security, and Emancipation   Reference library

K.M. Fierke

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,071 words

...to the management of populations and power over life. This reduces the citizen to what Giorgio Agamben ( 1998 ) refers to as “bare life.” The citizen of “normal politics,” derived, for instance, from Aristotle’s conception, engages in political debate and decision making. In Foucault’s argument, sovereign power revolves around the governance of populations and biological life rather than political life. The subject of politics is no longer the potential agency of the citizen, but the management of life itself. In this respect, the founding political image...

Art in International Relations

Art in International Relations   Reference library

Barbara Baudot

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,772 words

...world of order which now more than ever seems to be the only alternative to disruption – we have to approach our task in the same spirit which animates the modern artist. We have to tackle our problems without the armor of inherited convictions or set formulas, but only with our bare hands and all the honesty we can muster. And we have to do so with an unbreakable will to master the inert matter of patterns created by history and sociological conditions. ( Fröhlich 2001 :18) Hammarskjöld distinguishes the art of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries from the...

The Development Paradigm and Its Critics

The Development Paradigm and Its Critics   Reference library

James H. Mittelman

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,777 words

...of household work become more arduous; the reorganization of production has a disruptive and uneven impact on ways of life. The gendered division of labor continues to place most women in subordinate positions. After all, gender is fundamentally a relationship of power in which structures of domination are preserved in an often unconscious manner through “commonsense” assumptions. The point of this avenue of critical inquiry is to lay bare dominant conceptions and reorient thinking on the linkages between poverty and development. This reframing is not fully...

Feminisms Troubling the Boundaries of International Relations

Feminisms Troubling the Boundaries of International Relations   Reference library

Christine Sylvester

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
11,292 words

...instead on the maintenance of feminist-defined boundaries ( Daly 1984 ). There can be such terribleness and bodily danger at some territorial boundaries today that one would not necessarily want to loiter there. That is to say, many live tenuously in spaces between life and bare life, disease and a modicum of health, citizenship and the limbo of asylum or other detention camps, employment and underemployment, rights and judicial invisibility ( Agamben 1998 ; Sylvester 2006 ; Rajaram and Grundy-Warr 2007 ); creativity is possible in such places, but...

Geographies of Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing, and War Crimes

Geographies of Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing, and War Crimes   Reference library

Carl T. Dahlman

The International Studies Encyclopedia

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Warfare and Defence
Length:
10,563 words

...A geographical commitment to describing our world therefore includes an ethical responsibility of care in rendering lives and places shattered by political violence. Carl T. Dahlman Miami University References Agamben, G. (1995) Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Agnew, J.A. (1999) Mapping Political Power Beyond the State: Territory, Identity, and Movement in World Politics. Millennium: Journal of International Studies 28 (3), 499–521. Agnew, J.A. (2003) Geopolitics: Re-Visioning World Politics...

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