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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Webster v. Reproductive Health Services

Webster v. Reproductive Health Services   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
485 words

...A bare majority upheld two of several provisions of the Missouri law: “[W]e uphold the Act's restrictions on the use of public employees and facilities for the performance or assistance of nontherapeutic abortions [those not necessary to save a mother's life].” The other provision of the Missouri law upheld by the Court was a requirement that “before a physician performs an abortion on a woman he has reason to believe is carrying an unborn child of twenty or more weeks … the physician shall first determine if the unborn child is viable [capable of life...

equality under the Constitution

equality under the Constitution   Reference library

The Oxford Guide to the United States Government

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2002
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,313 words

... United States ; Johnson v. Transportation Agency of Santa Clara County ; Plessy v. Ferguson ; Reed v. Reed ; Regents of the University of California v. Bakke ; Smith v. Allwright ; Sweatt v. Painter ; United Steelworkers of America v. Weber Sources Judith A. Baer , Equality under the Constitution (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1983). Paul Finkelman , Race and the Constitution, in By and for the People: Constitutional Rights in American History , edited by Kermit L. Hall (Arlington Heights, Ill.: Harlan Davidson, 1991). Donald W....

Terrorism, Middle East

Terrorism, Middle East   Reference library

Tom Brister

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,110 words

...and clear definition and assessment of terrorism is crucial in ensuring that balanced and reasonable policies are adopted that allow the country to maintain its political ideals. [ See also Al-Qaeda ; National Security Apparatus, American ; and 9/11 . ] Bibliography Baer, Robert. See No Evil: The True Story of a Ground Soldier in the CIA’s War on Terrorism . (New York, 2003). Banks, William C., Mitchel B. Wallerstein, and Renee de Nevers. Combating Terrorism: Strategies and Approaches . (Washington, D.C., 2007). Bohn, Michael K. The Achille...

Civil Rights

Civil Rights   Reference library

Katy J. Harriger

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,781 words

...; Gay Rights ; and Gender and Politics . ] Bibliography Ackerman, Bruce. We the People: Transformations . (Cambridge, Mass., 1998). Andersen, Ellen Ann. Out of the Closet and into the Courts: Legal Opportunity Structure and Gay Rights Litigation . (Ann Arbor, Mich., 2005). Baer, Judith. “ Sexual Equality and the Burger Court .” Western Political Science Quarterly 31 (1978): 470–491. Dudziak, Mary L. Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy . (Princeton, N.J., 2000). Fisher, Louis, and Katy J. Harriger. American Constitutional...

Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia   Reference library

Ivo Banac

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,486 words

...unitarists, who viewed centralism as an instrument that could aid the construction of an integral Yugoslav supranation. Jointly, Serbian centralists and Yugoslavist unitarists prevailed, and they brought about the centralistic Vidovdan Constitution of 1921 , which was passed by a bare majority over the boycott and opposition of most Croat, Slovene, and left-wing parties. As the most important non-Serb group that also had a history of limited statehood within the Hapsburg Monarchy, the Croats became the leaders in the struggle against the Serbian state project....

Welfare State

Welfare State   Reference library

Peter Starke

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,949 words

...typology. According to Esping-Andersen, three ideal-typical “worlds of welfare capitalism” can be used to describe the diversity of welfare states in the post-war decades. The social democratic welfare regime is characterized by entitlements that cover not just a bare minimum but include the middle class and cater to middle-class demands in terms of benefit levels. Private provision is virtually crowded out by this citizenship-based welfare state. Social transfers are accompanied by high-quality public social services designed to relieve...

Constitution, US

Constitution, US   Reference library

John Dinan

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,932 words

...to authorize Congress to abolish the foreign slave trade (the resulting compromise allowed for congressional adoption of such a ban, but it could not take effect until 1808 ), and whether to allow Congress to regulate navigation by a vote of a two-thirds supermajority or a bare majority (a majority eventually carried the day, despite Southern concerns that their interests would be overridden as a result). The convention also adopted a fugitive slave clause providing that slaves who escaped into free states were not thereby freed from slavery, but rather...

Global Economy and the United States

Global Economy and the United States   Reference library

Matthias M. Matthijs

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,747 words

...left the United States engaged in two costly ground wars, in Afghanistan (since 2001 ) and Iraq ( 2003 – 2011 ). Given the fact that both wars were sold to the American public as relatively easy-to-win and necessary wars, the slow progress in both conflicts by 2011 laid bare the state-building weaknesses of America ’s military forces. While the Barack Obama administration tried to disengage from both conflicts, the United States also tried to lead the reform of the world’s financial architecture under the auspices of the Group of 20 (G20), and to...

Judicial System, American

Judicial System, American   Reference library

David M. O’Brien

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
5,204 words

...political opposition with the election of Republican presidents Richard M. Nixon , Ronald Reagan , George H. W. Bush , and George W. Bush. Their appointees changed the composition of the Court and moved it in a more conservative direction. In the 1990 s and 2000 s, a bare majority of the Court limited congressional power in a series of rulings and defended its view of federalism, and became less willing to recognize claims to new rights. The Supreme Court and lower federal courts, no less than state courts, confront constraints and restraints from...

Media and Politics

Media and Politics   Reference library

Kathleen Hall Jamieson

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
4,881 words

...publishing them, Justice Hugo Black wrote for the majority, in New York Times Co. v. United States , that the Government’s power to censor the press was abolished so that the press would remain forever free to censure the Government. The press was protected so that it could bare the secrets of government and inform the people. Only a free and unrestrained press can effectively expose deception in government. And paramount among the responsibilities of a free press is the duty to prevent any part of the government from deceiving the people and sending them...

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770–1831)   Quick reference

Ian Fraser

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
976 words

...‘Being’ becomes ‘nothing’ and ‘nothing’ becomes ‘being’. From a state of indeterminacy we have moved to the determinacy of ‘becoming’ without assuming or presupposing anything. The rest of the Logic is an attempt by Hegel to develop further categories from the level of bare determinacy. It is from this analysis that we begin to discern the outlines of Hegel’s dialectical method. Hegel attempts to explain this as lucidly as is possible in the Lesser Logic which comprises part one of the Encyclopaedia . The rest of the Encyclopaedia covers the...

Brazil

Brazil   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,200 words

...which has traditionally dominated both economic and political life, and a set of new international trends which put more emphasis on the private sector and autonomous political groups. These opposing tendencies must be resolved in some way if the country is to move toward the world power status that its people have always sought. Thomas E. Skidmore , Politics in Brazil 1930–1964 (New York, 1967). Thomas E. Skidmore , The Politics of Military Rule in Brazil, 1964–1985 (New York, 1988). Werner Baer , The Brazilian Economy: Growth and Development (New York;...

Congo, Democratic Republic of the

Congo, Democratic Republic of the   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,166 words

...seven years later, when Laurent Kabila and his Rwandan backers dispatched him into exile on 17 May 1997 . By the time the Sovereign National Conference voted to establish the political institutions of the transition on 4 August 1992 , the Mobutu regime had been reduced to its bare essentials as a band of bloodthirsty thieves who survived by looting and thuggery. For regime diehards, all that seemed to matter was reliance on a few elite units of the military to maintain control over the mining and other revenue-generating parastatals, the central bank,...

Supreme Court of the United States

Supreme Court of the United States   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,421 words

...Court of the United States . The U.S. Constitution of 1787 sketched a bare outline of the federal judicial power. Article III established only one federal court—the Supreme Court—leaving Congress, in the Judiciary Act of 1789 , to create the lower federal courts, to fix the number of justices on the high court, and to set its appellate jurisdiction. The Constitution provided that the president would appoint the justices with the advice and consent of the Senate, leaving their specific qualifications (should they be lawyers? should they have previous...

Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
2,449 words

...unitarists, who viewed centralism as an instrument that could aid the construction of an integral Yugoslav supranation. Jointly, Serbian centralists and Yugoslavist unitarists prevailed, and brought about the centralistic Vidovdan Constitution of 1921 , which was passed by a bare majority over the boycott and opposition of most Croat, Slovene, and left-wing parties. As the most important non-Serb group with a history of limited statehood within the Habsburg Monarchy, the Croats became the leaders in the struggle against the Serbian state project. Unlike...

Media and Politics

Media and Politics   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,863 words

...the New York Times and the Washington Post from publishing them, Justice Black wrote for the majority that the Government's power to censor the press was abolished so that the press would remain forever free to censure the Government. The press was protected so that it could bare the secrets of government and inform the people. Only a free and unrestrained press can effectively expose deception in government. And paramount among the responsibilities of a free press is the duty to prevent any part of the government from deceiving the people and sending them...

Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development   Reference library

Jens Martens and Klaus Schilder

The Oxford Companion to Comparative Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,856 words

...measures of well-being and quality of life, gain growing importance in the sustainability discourse. From the beginning, sustainable development has been a highly controversial normative concept, open to (mis)interpretation. A consensus definition cannot be expected. Sustainable development remains a concept in flux. [ See also Development and Underdevelopment ; and Third World ]. Acosta, Alberto . “Toward the Universal Declaration of Rights of Nature: Thoughts for Action.” AFESE Journal (2010). Baer, Paul , and the Heinrich Boll Foundation....

Deobandīs

Deobandīs   Reference library

Barbara D. Metcalf

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
1,711 words

...political life at all. [ See also India ; Iqbal, Muhammad ; Islam and Politics in South Asia ; Pakistan ; and Tablīghī Jamāʿat .] Bibliography Faruqi, Ziya-ul-Hasan . The Deoband School and the Demand for Pakistan . New York: Asia Pub. House, 1963. Brief but useful treatment of the role of Deobandīs in support of the Congress movement. Friedmann, Yohanan . “The Attitude of the Jamīʿyat ʿUlamāʿ-i Hind to the Indian National Movement and the Establishment of Pakistan.” In TheʿUlamāʿ in Modern History , edited by Gabriel Baer , pp. 157–183....

Ibn Ṭufayl, Abū Bakr

Ibn Ṭufayl, Abū Bakr   Reference library

Edward Moad

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Politics
Length:
820 words

...the Divine, leading life of even barer simplicity and spiritual contemplation. All of this occurs, importantly, without the use of language or human society, the implication being that neither is a necessary condition of full self-actualization, as envisioned in the tale. On a neighboring island, in a society whose laws are based on the teachings of an ancient prophet (i.e., a Muslim society ruled by Sharīʿah law), there live two religious scholars. Absāl, the esoterically inclined of the two, retreats to the uninhabited island for a life of solitude;...

Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development   Reference library

Jens Martens and Klaus Schilder

The Oxford Companion to International Relations

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
3,849 words

...measures of well-being and quality of life, gain growing importance in the sustainability discourse. From the beginning, sustainable development has been a highly controversial normative concept, open to (mis)interpretation. A consensus definition cannot be expected. Sustainable development remains a concept in flux. [ See also Development and Underdevelopment ]. Bibliography Acosta, Alberto . “Toward the Universal Declaration of Rights of Nature: Thoughts for Action.” AFESE Journal (2010). Baer, Paul , and the Heinrich Böll Foundation. ...

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