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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Dhirubhai Ambani and Reliance Industries

Dhirubhai Ambani and Reliance Industries   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...a village schoolteacher’s son, who started life as a gas station attendant in Yemen, to lead a company that runs the world’s largest grass-roots oil refinery, would require many leaps of financial logic and a Bradman-esque tale set in the corporate world. And yet it is true that the company that Dhirubhai founded became the largest in India in terms of assets, sales, and profits within a quarter century of going public in 1977, and is now among the top 200 in the world when ranked on profits. That is only the bare bones of the blood and thunder story of a man...

Human Rights

Human Rights   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...the right of access to food supplies as bare non-derogable minimum and crucial to preserve human dignity. 26 • Broadened interpretation of existing rights through judicial activism. For instance, the most fundamental human right—right to life and liberty—was widened in Francis Coralie Mullin vs Administrator, Union Territory of Delhi 27 in 1981 with the Supreme Court observing that ‘the right to life includes the right to live with human dignity and all that goes along with it, namely the bare necessaries of life such as adequate nutrition, clothing and...

Baring, Alexander

Baring, Alexander (1774–1774)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,298 words

...against France. In the early part of his life Alexander Baring went to America where, in 1798 , he married the daughter of Senator William Bingham of Philadelphia, from one of the wealthiest families of Pennsylvania. Through this union he came into contact with the main mercantile firms of America, and the bank attained a leading position in the financing of US foreign trade. In 1803 Baring signed in Paris an agreement on behalf of his bank and Hope bank from Amsterdam, promising a loan to the Treasury of the United States to finance the Louisiana Purchase....

Goschen, George Joachim

Goschen, George Joachim (1831–1907)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,893 words

...in South American nations and in November 1890 Barings’ Bank looked set to crash; its liabilities were over £21 million. Although the governor of the Bank of England, William Lidderdale, asked Goschen to intervene to save the City’s financial institutions, the Chancellor refused to pledge state money to save a private company. He did offer to suspend the Bank Charter, but that was as far as he would go. Lidderdale was able to raise sufficient money from private concerns to save Barings, which became a joint stock company as a result. Gladstone...

Cowell, John Welsford

Cowell, John Welsford (1834–42)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
613 words

...excessive use can only be harmful. BIBLIOGRAPHY (with C.H. Cameron and J. Wrottesley ) Two Reports Addressed to His Majesty’s Commissioners Appointed to Inquire into the Administration and Operation of the Poor Laws (1834). Letters to the Right Honourable Francis Thornhill Baring, on the Institution of a Safe and Profitable Paper Currency (1843). David...

Boyd, Walter

Boyd, Walter (1753?–1837)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,081 words

... Sir Francis Baring in Observations on the Publication of Walter Boyd, Esq., M.P. ( 1801 ). A number of key issues that were central to the later bullionist debates were raised in this exchange. In particular, Boyd argued for using specie convertibility as the appropriate basis for monetary circulation. Observing that the rise in commodity prices was considerably greater than the fall of the exchange in Hamburg and that there was no premium on guineas, Baring observed that there was an inconsistency in Boyd’s position. The exchange between Baring and Boyd...

Ruggles, Thomas

Ruggles, Thomas (1737?–1813)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
983 words

...and healthy. At best their wages barely cover the cost of necessaries such as food, clothing and shelter. They are less healthy, and More susceptible to illness and decrepitude. They are More likely to become crippled or infirm at an earlier age; and when this happens, even the bare subsistence they once enjoyed becomes impossible and they are no longer able to provide for themselves at all. Poverty also exposes the frailties of human nature, and so the poor are More at risk from drunkenness and crime. It is tempting to Read this as a statement that ‘the poor...

Nicholls, George

Nicholls, George (1781–1865)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
754 words

...three years. During that time he also worked on other commercial enterprises, often in conjunction with Thomas Telford. He declined an offer from Alexander baring to go to central America to investigate the possibility of building a canal at Panama. In November 1826 , Nicholls accepted the post of superintendent of the Birmingham branch of the Bank of England: soon he involved himself in the life of the town. He established the savings bank there and became a town commissioner. He was a member of the hospital committee, and a director of the canal...

Godwin, William

Godwin, William (1756–1836)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,455 words

...improve. Regarding the lives of those fated to a bare and uncertain subsistence, he asserts that to be born to poverty is to be born a slave: a life of poverty is brief, without enjoyments, without leisure to improve the mind; the only happiness lies in fitful moments when pain is absent. The ideal, he argues, is ‘a state of cultivated equality’ based on all sharing the labour required for the production of the necessaries of life. When one’s labour is not appropriated by another, the production of life’s necessities demands less time and leaves individuals...

Balogh, Thomas

Balogh, Thomas (1905–85)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,488 words

...first, in 1945 , was to Penelope Gatty (née Tower), a psychotherapist and the widow of Oliver Gatty, a fellow of Balliol. This marriage was dissolved in 1970 and the same year he married Catherine Storr (née Cole), a psychologist and author of children’s books. The bare facts of Balogh’s life convey little of the man. The titles of his main books, listed in the bibliography, indicate something of his range of interests, but even these do not display the Power of his intelligence or the trenchancy of his personality. He had extraordinary intellect with an...

Jewish Diaspora

Jewish Diaspora   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,037 words
Illustration(s):
1

...trade because they could find kinspeople at long distances who they knew would not behave opportunistically. Bibliography Ayal, Eliezer B. , and Barry R. Chiswick . The Economics of the Diaspora Revisted . Economic Development and Cultural Change 31 (1983), 861–875. Baer, Yitzhak . A History of the Jews in Christian Spain . 2 vols. Philadelphia, 1966. Baron, Salo Wittmayer . A Social and Religious History of the Jews . 2d ed. New York, 1952. A fundamental work on Jewish history with an impressive bibliography. The first edition, 1937, is also...

Copleston, Edward

Copleston, Edward (1776–1849)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,415 words

...introduced by more recent legislation suspending sterling convertibility and restricting the grain trade added to the ‘friction in the machine’. By 1815 Copleston was a public figure whose advice on economic policy was sought by reformist Tories such as Canning, Peel, baring and huskisson . Faced with widespread misery and social dislocation caused by severe post-war depression ( 1815–20 ), and encouraged perhaps by ‘the refined and intellectual society’ he encountered in Lord Grenville’s circle, he composed his only systematic exposition of...

Price, Bonamy

Price, Bonamy (1807–88)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,235 words

...Oxford: A Study of Henry Halford Vaughan, 1811–1885 (Oxford, 1973). Hankey, T. , The Principles of Banking, its Utility and Economy; with Remarks on the Working and Management of the Bank of England (1867). Pressnell, L. , ‘Gold Reserves, Banking Reserves, and the Baring Crisis of 1890’, m C. Whittlesey and J. Wilson (eds), Essays in Money and Banking in Honor of R.S. Sayers (Oxford, 1968). John...

Wakefield, Edward Gibbon

Wakefield, Edward Gibbon (1796–1862)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,603 words

...price of land was to be ‘sufficient’ to deter speculators, to prevent injurious dispersion and to provide constancy of labour, but also to permit the thrifty labourer to eventually acquire land and become an employer himself. Karl marx lauded Wakefield for unashamedly laying bare the essence of capital’s exploitation of labour. Refusing Wakefield’s distinction between slavery and hire, Marx viewed the ‘sufficient price’ as the ‘ransom’ paid by labourers for their freedom. Concentrating labour by this device generated revenue ( 1834 : 297). Influenced by...

Wakefield, Edward Gibbon

Wakefield, Edward Gibbon (1796–1862)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,597 words

...The price of land was to be ‘sufficient’ to deter speculators, to prevent injurious dispersion and to provide constancy of labor, but also to permit the thrifty laborer to eventually acquire land and become an employer himself. Karl Marx lauded Wakefield for unashamedly laying bare the essence of capital's exploitation of labor. Refusing Wakefield 's distinction between slavery and hire, Marx viewed the ‘sufficient price’ as the ‘ransom’ paid by laborers for their freedom. Concentrating labor by this device generated revenue ( 1834 : 297). Influenced by ...

Poor Relief

Poor Relief   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,468 words
Illustration(s):
1

...rights. Before the state welfare programs of the twentieth century, poor relief was the chief mechanism for dealing with poverty. Despite its many guises and purposes it rarely aspired to do more than relieve destitution—to provide a safety net by which the poor could maintain a bare subsistence. However, it dealt with the poor in a variety of ways and often sought to categorize them so as to treat them differently according to type. Much of this approach had rational economic intentions; but poor relief was never purely an economic instrument, and a society's...

Brougham, Henry Peter

Brougham, Henry Peter (1778–1778)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,125 words

...12, pp. 283–90. Thoughts Suggested by Lord Lauderdale’s Observations upon the Edinburgh Review (1805). ‘ Lord Liverpool on the Coin ’, Edinburgh Review (1806), vol. 14, pp. 265–95. ‘ Examination of the Late Orders in Council ’, Edinburgh Review (1808), vol. 22, pp. 484–98. ‘ Baring and Others on the Orders in Council ’, Edinburgh Review (1808), vol. 23, pp. 225–46. ‘ Education of the Poor ’, Edinburgh Review (1810), vol. 33, pp. 58–88. ‘ Education of the Poor ’, Edinburgh Review (1811), vol. 37, pp. 1–41. ‘ Education of the Poor ’, Edinburgh Review ...

Bagehot, Walter

Bagehot, Walter (1826–1826)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,620 words

...demand. How much was enough? It was difficult to give a simple rule. The money market, however, had an idea about what the minimum should be, and the Bank must be sure that it always holds a bit More. If the reserve should approach the amount that the market considered the bare minimum, the market would become apprehensive. If the reserves Fell below this amount, what Bagehot referred to as the ‘apprehension minimum’, apprehension might turn to alarm and finally to panic. Whenever the Bank’s reserve approached the apprehension minimum the Bank must...

George, Henry

George, Henry (1839–97)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of American Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
3,819 words

...war. George did admit the impotency of free trade in the absence of land reform. Social Problems expands the role of government far beyond what is suggested in his other books. He advocates universal access to the basic social goods of society. These social goods must go beyond a bare means of survival and eliminate the conditions fostering disease, death, vice, and crime. George argued for providing electricity, telephones, heat, and light for all homes. The Land Question was a triage of earlier publications including The Irish Land Question , Property in...

Newmarch, William

Newmarch, William (1820–82)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,828 words

...In this work Newmarch discusses the system of opinions known as the ‘currency theory’, as well as the Bank Act of 1844 (Sir Robert Peel’s Act) which was founded on them, in the light of the ‘converse’ doctrines maintained by Tooke , Fullarton , and Lord Ashburton ( Alexander baring ). ‘There is no third class of doctrines’, he claims, ‘which any considerable number of persons would thank us for discussing’ (Newmarch 1847 : 231–2). The chief provision of the Bank Act of 1844 was the separation of the Bank of England into an ‘Issue Department’ and a...

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