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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

bare life

bare life   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010

...life lived. Bare life refers then to a conception of life in which the sheer biological fact of life is given priority over the way a life is lived, by which Agamben means its possibilities and potentialities. Suggestions made in 2008 by Scotland Yard and the Institute for Public Policy Research in Britain that children as young as five should be DNA typed and their details placed in a database if they exhibit behavioural signs indicating future criminal activity is a perfect example of what Agamben means by bare life. It reduces the prospects of the life of...

bare life

bare life   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Critical Theory (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...life lived. Bare life refers then to a conception of life in which the sheer biological fact of life is given priority over the way a life is lived, by which Agamben means its possibilities and potentialities. Suggestions made in 2008 by Scotland Yard and the Institute for Public Policy Research in Britain that children as young as five should be DNA typed and their details placed in a database if they exhibit behavioural signs indicating future criminal activity is a perfect example of what Agamben means by bare life. It reduces the prospects of the life of...

Djibouti

Djibouti  

A city-state that serves as a transit point for neighbouring countriesThough there are mountains in the north of this small country, most of Djibouti consists of a bare arid plateau—one of the ...
trust

trust   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Agriculture and Land Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
649 words

...contribution towards it (although this would not be the case in Scotland). Trustees and beneficiaries can be the same people; for example, under English law, when property is co-owned, a trust is automatically imposed in law. The main types of trust that exist in the UK are: • Bare trust . The trustees hold the property on trust for a particular beneficiary who, when an adult, has an immediate and absolute right to all of the capital and income from the trust. This type of trust is often used to hold assets for young people until they are old enough to...

Conflict Studies versus Peace Studies

Conflict Studies versus Peace Studies   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,448 words

...governance, the global distribution of resources, and the politics of environmental sustainability—a set of questions so broad as to require a wide-ranging analysis of social systems, cultures, and civilizations. Thus, while conflict studies in its classical form focused on the bare essentials of conflict, peace studies were driven to explore ever wider contexts and more extensive questions. The scope widened still further when Galtung introduced the notion of structural violence and proposed to interpret “positive peace” as the realization of potential. Some...

Insurgent War and Peace Ethics

Insurgent War and Peace Ethics   Reference library

The Oxford International Encyclopedia of Peace

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences
Length:
3,687 words

...a just cause, some insurgents justify violence as defense against or reaction to state violence. This argument is easiest when the state engages in egregious violence against the insurgents’ claimed constituency. Fanon describes the ways in which the colonial situation laid bare the violent nature of the state. Suffering use of force by police is a rarity for affluent citizens in Western nations, but state brutality and military operations against the populace are a daily reality for the colonized. According to Fanon, this daily experience of violence...

Baring, Alexander

Baring, Alexander (1774–1774)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,298 words

...against France. In the early part of his life Alexander Baring went to America where, in 1798 , he married the daughter of Senator William Bingham of Philadelphia, from one of the wealthiest families of Pennsylvania. Through this union he came into contact with the main mercantile firms of America, and the bank attained a leading position in the financing of US foreign trade. In 1803 Baring signed in Paris an agreement on behalf of his bank and Hope bank from Amsterdam, promising a loan to the Treasury of the United States to finance the Louisiana Purchase....

homo sacer

homo sacer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
119 words

...sacer A person who is located outside the law, whose life is deemed of no value and who may therefore be killed with impunity. Meaning ‘sacred man’ in Latin, the term originally referred to certain categories of person under Roman law. In recent years it has been elaborated by Italian political theorist Giorgio Agamben to explore the ways in which sovereign power relegates some persons to states of ‘bare life’, i.e. exposed to violence. Geographers interested in prisons, immigrant detention centres, and sites of extreme state violence have used and reflected...

Hasidism and Nature Mysticism

Hasidism and Nature Mysticism   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
956 words

...divine essence of being is one that truly affirms the natural world as a locus of divinity or merely seeks to cast the varied masks of nature aside in order to reach the single, undifferentiated goal of the mystic quest. While the key mystical authors within Hasidism ( Rabbi Dov Baer of Mezritch and his circle) do indeed waver on this question, popular Hasidism in its early days surely glorified the natural world as a setting for the encounter with God's glory. In later years, especially as Hasidism moved from rural to urban settings, much of this devotion to...

Motivational Interviewing

Motivational Interviewing   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...K. , Jackson, A. , Wang, T. , De, A. K. , McCarty, F. , & Dudley, W. N. , et al. (2001). A motivational interviewing intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake through Black churches: Results of the eat for life trial . American Journal of Public Health , 91, 1686–1693. Roberts, L. J. , Neal, D. J. , Kivlahan, D. R. , Baer, J. S. & Marlatt, G. A. (2000). Individual drinking changes following a brief intervention among college students: Clinical significance in an indicated preventive context . Journal of Consulting and Clinical...

penguin

penguin   Quick reference

M. V. Angel

The Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Social sciences
Length:
295 words

...and weighs more than 40 kilograms (98 lb). Emperors have a unique life history. They breed in rookeries of up to 50,000 pairs on the Antarctic ice shelf and the young are left in large crèches to overwinter hundreds of kilometres from the ice edge. They feed predominantly on squid and can dive to depths of 265 metres (870 ft). Underwater they swim at speeds of 9–11 kilometres an hour (6–7 mph). Each species of penguin occupies a specific type of breeding ground, ranging from ice, to bare ground (chinstraps, Adelies, and gentoos), to cliffs (rockhoppers),...

Baccalaureate Social Workers

Baccalaureate Social Workers   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...whether the program is located in an urban or rural area (Baer & Frederico, 1979 ; Cressy-Wells & Federico, 1998 ). All BSW curricula have components in the Strength Based Perspective, Generalist Model, and Problem Solving Method. The strengths perspective (which focuses on the clients' abilities, positive social networks, strengths, and resources instead of pathology, problems, and social and personal defects (Leashore, 1995 ) is based on the assumption that all people, regardless of their life circumstances, have the skills and abilities to play an...

Behavioral Theory

Behavioral Theory   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Social Work (20 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...by modifying the consequences that follow them. Applied behavior analysis emerged as a distinct subfield within psychology during the 1960s, led by psychologists such as Donald Baer , Todd Risley , and Teodoro Ayllon , who sought to harness behavioral principles to assess, evaluate, and change behavior to benefit humans' adaptation and functioning in everyday life (for example, Baer, Wolff, & Risley, 1968 ). The linchpin of operant theory is that behavior is controlled or governed by its consequences (for example, behavioral or environmental events that...

Death and Afterlife in Robinson Jeffers and Edward Abbey

Death and Afterlife in Robinson Jeffers and Edward Abbey   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
684 words

...that is pervasive in contemporary green spirituality. In it, Jeffers reflects on an occasion when, while lying on his back in a desert canyon in the Southwestern United States, he was once mistaken for carrion by a vulture. Vulture I had walked since dawn and lay down to rest on a bare hillside Above the ocean. I saw through half-shut eyelids a vulture wheeling high up in heaven, And presently it passed again, but lower and nearer, its orbit narrowing, I understood then That I was under inspection. I lay death-still and heard the flight feathers Whistle above me...

Abbey, Edward

Abbey, Edward (1927–1989)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,811 words

...other forms of life – weeds, flowers, shrubs, trees … which support the ongoing human pageant – the lives of our children. That seems good enough for me … I think the desire for immortality is based on … a terrible fear of dying, fear of death, which comes from not having fully lived. If your life has been wasted, then naturally you're going to hate giving it up. If you've led a cowardly, or paltry, or tedious, or uneventful life, then as you near the end of it, you're going to cling like a drowning man to whatever kind of semi-life medical technology can...

Goschen, George Joachim

Goschen, George Joachim (1831–1907)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
1,893 words

...in South American nations and in November 1890 Barings’ Bank looked set to crash; its liabilities were over £21 million. Although the governor of the Bank of England, William Lidderdale, asked Goschen to intervene to save the City’s financial institutions, the Chancellor refused to pledge state money to save a private company. He did offer to suspend the Bank Charter, but that was as far as he would go. Lidderdale was able to raise sufficient money from private concerns to save Barings, which became a joint stock company as a result. Gladstone...

Boyd, Walter

Boyd, Walter (1753?–1837)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
2,081 words

... Sir Francis Baring in Observations on the Publication of Walter Boyd, Esq., M.P. ( 1801 ). A number of key issues that were central to the later bullionist debates were raised in this exchange. In particular, Boyd argued for using specie convertibility as the appropriate basis for monetary circulation. Observing that the rise in commodity prices was considerably greater than the fall of the exchange in Hamburg and that there was no premium on guineas, Baring observed that there was an inconsistency in Boyd’s position. The exchange between Baring and Boyd...

Cowell, John Welsford

Cowell, John Welsford (1834–42)   Reference library

The Biographical Dictionary of British Economists

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics
Length:
613 words

...excessive use can only be harmful. BIBLIOGRAPHY (with C.H. Cameron and J. Wrottesley ) Two Reports Addressed to His Majesty’s Commissioners Appointed to Inquire into the Administration and Operation of the Poor Laws (1834). Letters to the Right Honourable Francis Thornhill Baring, on the Institution of a Safe and Profitable Paper Currency (1843). David...

Tukanoan Indians (Northwest Amazonia)

Tukanoan Indians (Northwest Amazonia)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
3,186 words

...Press, 1996, 32–75. Hugh-Jones, Stephen . The Palm and the Pleiades: Initiation and Cosmology in Northwest Amazonia . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979. Langdon, E. Jean Matteson . “Shamanic Power in Siona Religion and Medicine.” In E. J. Matteson Langdon and G. Baer , eds. Portals of Power: Shamanism in South America . Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1992, 41–62. Moran, Emilio . Through Amazonian Eyes: The Human Ecology of Amazonian Populations . Iowa: University of Iowa Press, 1993. Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo . “ Cosmology as...

Aesthetics of Nature and the Sacred

Aesthetics of Nature and the Sacred   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Religion and Nature

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences
Length:
2,715 words

...comes into being when persons arrive, enjoy their unique presence, and search for the significance of life. “I went to the woods,” remarked Thoreau, “because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived” (Thoreau 1966 : 61). No one can live in bare woods alone; civilization too is, for humans, an essential fact of life. The town, however, is not so aboriginally archetypal. Were civilization to collapse, the Earth would...

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