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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

succession

succession   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

... ( plant succession ) A series of complexes of plant life at a particular site. Plant succession is viewed as the development of plant life on originally bare earth, in a definite sequence; see Leal and Lorscheitter (2007) Acta Bot. Bras. 21, 1 . The term successional dynamics applies to the shifts between successional stages of an ecosystem...

Recapitulation

Recapitulation   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of von Baer and to the notion of divergence in the embryonic history. Then, in 1859 and following his reading of T. H. Huxley's translation of von Baer, Darwin also noted the importance of studying development for evidence of the animal's ancestral characteristics. After all, the divergence von Baer had discussed was remarkably similar to the descent by modification that Charles, Darwin envisioned. Darwin's epochal book On the Origin of Species appeared in 1859 . In it, Darwin carefully developed his new interpretation of animal life, emphasizing...

evergreen

evergreen   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Ecology (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Applied to a tree or shrub that has persistent leaves, and whose crown is never wholly bare. Although the entire plant remains green throughout the year, each leaf has a limited life span, but is physically tougher and usually longer-lived than a deciduous leaf. Evergreen leaves have the advantage that where nutrients such as nitrogen are in short supply their longer life span allows a more efficient use of the limited...

Snowball Earth

Snowball Earth   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...have actually frozen over, resembling a ‘snowball’, and potentially causing some of the most severe crises in the history of life on the planet. Such episodes may have been triggered by a reduction in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, principally CO 2 (carbon dioxide) and CH 4 (methane). This would have made the global climate colder, creating larger areas of ice and snow. This ice and snow reflects more solar radiation than does bare ground or liquid water, which creates a ‘positive feedback’. If the Earth ever became approximately half-covered by ice or...

claret

claret   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... clairet , pale red verging on rosé, is still made in Bordeaux. Claret 's establishment in English as unequivocally a word for ‘red wine’ is confirmed by its metaphorical use for ‘blood’, particularly as drawn by fisticuffs; the usage now has a very dated air, conjuring up the bare-knuckle fights of the eighteenth century, but it dates back to the early seventeenth century: ‘This should be a Coronation day: for my head runs claret lustily’, Thomas Dekker, The Honest Whore ( 1604 ). And at about the same time, it began to be used as a pure colour term,...

Development

Development   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
11,771 words
Illustration(s):
2

...ideas for his evolutionary theories from von Baer. These included (1) a branching versus linear form of descent, (2) the idea that similar structures reveal common descent, and (3) the idea of using embryonic forms in classification. Because differences in adult form arise during development, von Baer's laws also led Darwin to see that the predictable similarities between the embryonic forms of different groups of organisms were strong support for his theory of evolution. Together, the ideas of von Baer, Schleiden and Schwann, and Darwin formed the...

Erosion

Erosion   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
3,082 words
Illustration(s):
1

...it becomes concentrated into flow paths, its velocity increases, and it is able to cut small channels or rills into the land surface. Dense rill networks can be formed on bare farmland during intense rainstorms; they are also a feature of slopes left bare of vegetation for several months at a time, such as road cuttings, embankments, industrial sites, and residential areas left bare while construction work is in progress. In many situations, rill channels do not cut very deeply because the underlying material is less weathered, more compact, and therefore...

Building Decay

Building Decay   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...the service life of many building materials. Allied with other good environmental management practices, such as the improvement of air quality, better management of groundwater resources, and reduction of traffic-related impacts such as de-icing salt applications, such strategies should help to conserve buildings and engineering structures by reducing materials decay. See also Air Quality . Addleson, L. , and C. Rice . Performance of Materials in Buildings . Oxford: Butterworth Heinemann, 1991. A readable summary of important properties. Baer, N. S. , and ...

Erosion

Erosion   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,952 words
Illustration(s):
1

...runoff over the land surface is reduced. The percentage of the annual rainfall contributing to runoff varies from less than 1% in densely vegetated areas to nearly 60% in urban areas and on bare soil. By determining the fate of the rainfall, the vegetation cover directly influences the erosion by raindrop impact and surface runoff. Raindrop Impact Raindrop impact on bare soil is a powerful agent of particle detachment. Norman Hudson ( 1934–1996 ) carried out a simple but classic experiment in the 1950s in Zimbabwe to show the importance of covering the soil...

History of Evolutionary Thought

History of Evolutionary Thought   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...embryologist Karl Ernst von Baer ( 1792–1876 ), the naturalist Louis Agassiz ( 1807–1873 ), and the poet Goethe ( 1749–1832 ), science consisted in extracting general forms from the variety of patterns that are discernible in nature. For each natural group, an archetype exists, and the goal of science is to discover these archetypes. Just as there is the ideal fish, ideal vertebrate, and ideal plant, there is the ideal mineral. Each of these archetypes can be discovered by stripping away all accidental features to lay bare the essence of the thing....

Epigenesis and Preformationism

Epigenesis and Preformationism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...the problems. Microscopists could duplicate the work of one another, demonstrate their observations to others, and replicate their own work. Furthermore, the new instruments had much greater magnification and resolution. Thus, when the Prussian naturalist Karl Ernst von Baer published his monumental work on animal generation in 1828 , he was able to demonstrate with great microscopical acuity that the developing embryo emerged gradually from undifferentiated material in the female ovum. This work was continued by both Theodor Schwann and Matthias...

Dust Storms

Dust Storms   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011

...little or no rain and the soil surface is in an erodible condition, then dust storms are a likely result. The requirement that both the soil condition and the weather situation be suitable means that dust storms tend to be seasonal. In China, they are common in early spring when bare soil is exposed after the winter snow cover has disappeared and before crops have germinated. Some of the factors tending to increase the frequency of dust storms are prolonged drought, an increase in strong wind events, disturbance of the surface by animals, vehicles, or building...

Developing Countries

Developing Countries   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Science and technology, Earth Sciences and Geography, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
6,595 words
Illustration(s):
2

...A. , and S. Narain . Global Warming in an Unequal World: A Case of Environmental Colonialism . New Delhi: Centre for Science and Environment, 1991. Athanasiou, T. Divided Planet: The Ecology of Rich and Poor . New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1996. Athanasiou, T. , and P. Baer . Dead Heat: Global Justice and Global Warming . New York: Seven Stories Press, 2002. Banuri, T. , and J. Weyant . “Setting the Stage: Climate Change and Sustainable Development.” In Climate Change 2001: Mitigation , edited by B. Metz et al. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge...

Biological Feedback

Biological Feedback   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...warming at high latitudes decreases the effects of snow albedo and causes regional warming. Evidence from studies of past glacial-interglacial cycles suggests that a cooler and drier climate leads to less vegetation cover on the land surface, which in turn leads to an increase in bare soil and thus dustiness. Iron-containing dust from the land is transported by wind over the oceans, where it acts as a fertilizer to phytoplankton, causing a bloom which removes CO 2 from the atmosphere, leading to a cooler and drier climate. There is also evidence that the...

Zoos and Aquariums as Informal Learning Environments for Climate Change Communication

Zoos and Aquariums as Informal Learning Environments for Climate Change Communication   Reference library

Susan Clayton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Climate Change Communication

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...(2012). Climate change education: A primer for zoos and aquariums . Chicago: Chicago Zoological Society. Routman, E. , Ogden, J. , & Winsten, K. (2010). Visitors, conservation learning, and the design of zoo and aquarium experiences. In D. Kleiman , K. Thompson , & C. K. Baer (Eds.), Wild mammals in captivity: Principles and techniques (2d ed., pp 134–150). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Schwan, S. , Grajal, A. , & Lewalter, D. (2014). Understanding and engagement in places of science experience: Science museums, science centers, zoos, and...

Catastrophist–cornucopian Debate

Catastrophist–cornucopian Debate   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of health, wealth, and happiness, but of population always growing to the limits of bare subsistence, its growth ever checked by one or the other of two means Malthus recognized: “misery and vice.” The arguments of the essay differ in several ways from those of modern environmental catastrophists. Malthus saw crises of subsistence not as a looming future consequence of excessive growth but as a factor constantly in operation, something that had always been a part of human life and always would be. He did not directly address environmental change as a constraint...

Catastrophist-Cornucopian Debate

Catastrophist-Cornucopian Debate   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...of health, wealth, and happiness, but of population always approaching the limits of bare subsistence, its growth ever checked by one of the two means Malthus recognized, misery and vice. The arguments of the Essay differ in several ways from those of modern environmental catastrophists. Malthus saw crises of subsistence not as a looming future consequence of excessive growth but as a factor constantly in operation, something that had always been a part of human life and always would be. He did not directly address environmental change as a constraint on...

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,529 words
Illustration(s):
1

...proceeds, mangrove zones will tend to migrate landward, invading a low-lying hinterland. In humid regions they will invade backing rainforest or formerly freshwater swamps, as on the Mamberano delta in Irian Jaya, while in drier areas they will colonize backing salt marsh and bare saline flats, as at Port Adelaide in South Australia. As this migration proceeds, it is likely that some mangrove species will become more abundant and extensive, while others will diminish or even disappear. In many places the landward migration of mangroves in response to a...

Modeling of Natural Systems

Modeling of Natural Systems   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,798 words
Illustration(s):
1

...worldwide. The sparse vegetation natural to arid and semiarid areas can easily be removed as a result of relatively minor changes in the climate, or by direct influence of human activity such as overgrazing or poor agricultural practices. Removal of vegetation and exposure of bare soil decreases soil water storage because of increased runoff and increased albedo. Less moisture available at the surface means decreased latent heat flux, leading to an increase in surface temperature. On the other hand, the increased albedo produces a net radiative loss. In...

Mangroves

Mangroves   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Global Change

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Science and technology, Environmental Science, Social sciences, Environment
Length:
2,495 words
Illustration(s):
1

...proceeds, mangrove zones will tend to migrate landward, invading a low-lying hinterland. In humid regions they will invade backing rainforest or formerly freshwater swamps, as on the Mamberamo delta in Irian Jaya, while in drier areas they will colonize backing salt marsh and bare saline flats, as at Port Adelaide in South Australia. As this migration proceeds, it is likely that some mangrove species will become more abundant and extensive, while others will diminish or even disappear. In many places the landward migration of mangroves in response to a...

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