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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

claret

claret   Quick reference

The Diner’s Dictionary (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

... clairet , pale red verging on rosé, is still made in Bordeaux. Claret 's establishment in English as unequivocally a word for ‘red wine’ is confirmed by its metaphorical use for ‘blood’, particularly as drawn by fisticuffs; the usage now has a very dated air, conjuring up the bare-knuckle fights of the eighteenth century, but it dates back to the early seventeenth century: ‘This should be a Coronation day: for my head runs claret lustily’, Thomas Dekker, The Honest Whore ( 1604 ). And at about the same time, it began to be used as a pure colour term,...

Food Trucks

Food Trucks   Reference library

Sophia V. Schweitzer

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Trucks Quite simply, food trucks are mobile venues that sell food. This is nothing new. By way of carts, wagons, and trucks, creative entrepreneurs have been peddling sandwiches and prepackaged or easy-to-prepare meals for decades. Vehicles would be equipped with anything from bare counter space to fryers and compact kitchens. Today's food truck, however, uses blogs and social media such as Twitter to elevate street food into a gourmet class of its own. Meeting the nation's growing preference for affordable, easily accessible foods made with quality...

Polish American Food

Polish American Food   Reference library

Annie S. Hauck-Lawson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...it is least preferred as it seems to bruise the cabbage. A favored method is to press the cabbage down with the palms of the hands. There is tradition that the very best way is to hoist a thoroughly scrubbed child into the barrel to race around and pack down the cabbage with its bare feet. Chrusciki, or angel wings, are a treat made from deep-fried dough, sprinkled with confectioner's sugar. They are sometimes cut into diamond shapes and slit in the center, with the ends pulled through and fried. Many of these foods are common to Polish Americans of different...

Cooking Equipment, Social Aspects of

Cooking Equipment, Social Aspects of   Reference library

Alice Ross

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the ready sale or barter of surplus and the opportunity to acquire more objects. On the ever-changing frontier a few manufactured goods were supplemented by large numbers of hand-made objects. Regardless of the date of settlement and its location, new emigrant homes began with bare necessities, if only temporarily, until further settlement and new trade routes brought access to additional manufactured goods. Urban areas, even in the earlier colonies, functioned under a different economic system. By definition they were densely populated communities, usually...

Vegetables

Vegetables   Reference library

Kay Rentschler

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...cuttings in their pockets. They were looking for arable land—and they found it. Throughout its history the United States has Vegetables.  From Aaron Low's Illustrated Retail Seed Catalogue and Garden Manual , 1887, p. 46. produced fresh vegetables, in small kitchen gardens and bare urban lots primped and tended by hand and in vast fields tilled and prodded by machine and sometimes ravaged by chemicals. In the context of wars, technological advances, and the American zeal for convenience, vegetables have known ups and down, but their strongest patrons and...

Cooking Schools

Cooking Schools   Reference library

Andrew F. Smith and Cathy K. Kaufman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...cookery, pastry, and baking, and for business-oriented management skills, maintaining a more traditional distinction between the front of the house and the kitchen. These management programs compress the college and university studies forged at places such as Cornell into short, bare-bones instruction for small-business owners and budding restaurateurs who may not have the luxury of spending four years pursuing a bachelor's degree. Most interesting of all is the language chosen to describe culinary training programs: many call themselves “vocational,” whereas...

Dining Rooms and Meal Service

Dining Rooms and Meal Service   Reference library

Cathy K. Kaufman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...lithograph. Collection of Andrew F. Smith candied spices; the first step in breaking down the hall was to remove the tablecloth from the impermanent tables. This practice evolved into the custom that continued through the mid–nineteenth century of serving dessert on a bare tabletop, exposing the burnished wood, usually mahogany, to admiring eyes. In The House Servant's Directory ( 1827 ), the Bostonian butler Robert Roberts offers painstaking instructions for this intrusive manipulation. Servants carefully rolled up the heavy damask tablecloth and...

Native American Foods

Native American Foods   Reference library

Alice Ross, Alice Ross, and Alice Ross

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...freshwater, and land were caught for their meat and their eggs and were often cooked whole in the shell. Freshwater and saltwater eels were also caught by spearing, sometimes in basket traps. In the winter, hunters sometimes used their bare feet to locate eels hiding dormant in the mud and then caught them with their bare hands. Shellfish was easy to obtain. Quahog and soft clams, razor clams, whelks, and oysters abounded and were simply available for the taking. The presence of large middens (shell deposits) along the East Coast and eastern rivers attests...

dacquoise

dacquoise   Reference library

Kyri W. Claflin

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...with a filling sandwiched between each layer. See meringue . Buttercream is traditional, but fruit fillings and whipped cream are also commonly used. A dusting of confectioner’s sugar may cover the top and sides of the dacquoise, or it may be spread with buttercream or left bare to show the beautiful layering of meringue circles and filling. A dacquoise can be made large, like a cake, or small, for individual desserts. Julia Child writes in Mastering the Art of French Cooking ( 1979 , Vol. 2) that a great deal of disagreement exists in French cookbooks...

sardi/garmi

sardi/garmi   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014

...was in Iraq and Morocco—two countries whose antique cuisines closely identify with pre-Islamic Persia. Many Iraqis still talk of certain foods in terms of harr (Hot), and bared (Cold), but it is folk memory rather than serious practical application, that keeps the tradition alive. In Morocco, on the other hand, es-sxun (Hot) and el-berd (Cold), remain an integral part of daily life, and it was through Moorish-influenced Spanish and Portuguese physicians that humoral theory reached South America, where caliente/frio is still popular today. Spanish...

Tearooms

Tearooms   Reference library

Jan Whitaker

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016

...over steaks, chops, and other hearty dishes served in what tearoom fans called “ordinary restaurants.” The fashionability of Fifth Avenue tearooms inspired a countercultural reaction among Greenwich Village women, who created tearooms in their own offbeat style. Ramshackle and bare, often with ceilings painted in bright colors and drawings scrawled on walls, they became centers for an emerging youth culture. They have been documented in the photographs of Jessie Tarbox Beals. Tearooms were especially plentiful in the Village, so much so that an article in...

literature and food

literature and food   Reference library

Bee Wilson

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,058 words

...bit of tart—a very little bit … I do not advise the custard.’ Food in fiction can also play the role of social criticism, such as the drunken wedding scene in Zola ’s L’Assommoir , which exposes the degradation of life among the Parisian poor. At the opposite end of the social scale, in Edith Wharton ’s novels, highly ritualized dinners lay bare the ‘customs, rituals and taboos’ of the American upper classes ( McGee, 2001 ). More recently, Jonathan Franzen ’s The Corrections ( 2001 ) contains a scene in which a character shoplifts an extremely expensive...

race

race   Reference library

Psyche Williams-Forson and LaDonna Redmond

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,477 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and happily eat watermelon. The early twentieth century, for example, witnessed white functions and events where blacks provided the entertainment by engaging in watermelon-eating contests. A 1937 cover of Life magazine helped to perpetuate these stereotypes by depicting a wagon full of watermelons with an African American man, his back bared, sitting on the edge of a cart looking out toward a dirt road, with farmland on either side. Another image accompanying the story was captioned “The watermelon starts its journey to market in an ordinary...

Australia and New Zealand

Australia and New Zealand   Reference library

Toni Risson

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,037 words

...heavy, like marbles, they make ideal missiles. In postwar suburban movie theaters, organists were often pelted with Jaffas at the beginning of children’s matinees. Another barrage was unleashed if the film started late or if the reel broke. Best of all, a Jaffa rolling down the bare, sloped wooden floor of a darkened cinema during a tense moment provoked mirth and mayhem. The carnivalesque ritual of Jaffa-rolling epitomizes Australia’s anti-authoritarian identity and exposes larrikinism, for which Australians are renowned, as the province of girls and boys...

Picnics

Picnics   Reference library

Walter Levy

Savoring Gotham: A Food Lover’s Companion to New York City

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2016
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,390 words
Illustration(s):
1

...is Richard Pantell’s painting Backyards ( 2001 ), a scene in a Queens backyard where a family sits at a wooden picnic table surrounded by buildings and junk: a truck, an automobile, and a clothesline full of drying wash. It’s either early spring or late fall, for the trees are bare, but the hearty picnickers are taking in the city air in their meager garden, but what they eat is unknown. Finally, for a commuters’ picnic, Rosanne Wasserstein’s “Picnic in the Station” ( 1995 ) is a poetic image of a woman standing in the great lobby of Grand Central Terminal...

Switzerland

Switzerland   Reference library

Caroline Hostettler

The Oxford Companion to Cheese

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,666 words

...Northeast Switzerland Reaching from the Entlebuch-Luzern region on its western end, through Toggenburg, Appenzell, and even into the St. Gallen area in the east, this is the largest and least standardized of all Alp zones. With its diverse geography—from rolling hills to steep, bare mountains—this region has brought many different cheeses onto the market, including Appenzeller, Tilsiter, Toggenburger, Sbrinz, and countless Alpkäse. See appenzeller and tilsiter . Central Switzerland used to be under the influence of Allemanic communities and started to...

USA

USA   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Food (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
1,604 words

...and a gold fob with a ribbon’. California had no monopoly of new fashions. ‘Deep in the heart of Texas, Sivils Drive-In dressed their hops in what would become the epitome of car-hop fashion. Mrs. Sivil introduced to the drive-in world an abbreviated costume of satin shorts and bare midriff top crowned with a foot-high plumed [drum] majorette hat that caused a sensation across America.’ There is a photograph of 52 of the majorettes lined up on the roof of and in front of the Dallas branch, the flags of the USA, of Texas, and of Sivils flying above. The one...

Carême, Marie-Antoine

Carême, Marie-Antoine (1783/4–1833)   Reference library

Ian Kelly

The Oxford Companion to Sugar and Sweets

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Society and culture, Cookery, Food, and Drink
Length:
954 words
Illustration(s):
1

...period. Carême’s fame therefore rests on his obsession with the architectural and plastic properties of the increasingly refined sugars of his era. His definitions of the boiling points of sugar stand to this day, and his description of the means of testing temperature (with bare hands and iced water nearby) is still a rite of passage for patissiers. Marie-Antoine Carême was arguably the first celebrity chef, known especially for his elaborate sculptural centerpieces ( pièces montées ), which were frequently constructed of spun sugar. He is also remembered...

Hindu Dietary Laws

Hindu Dietary Laws   Reference library

Leena Trivedi-Grenier

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...ceremonies. [ See also Indian American Food ; Vegetarianism .] Bibliography Achaya, K. T. Indian Food: A Historical Companion . Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1994. Bahador, Om Lata . The Book of Hindu Festivals and Ceremonies . New Delhi: UBS Publishers’ Distributors, 1997. Barer-Stein, Thelma . “Indian, Pakistani and Sri Lankan” In You Eat What You Are: People, Culture and Food Traditions , pp. 201–213. Toronto: Firefly Books, 1999. Kilara, Arun , and K. K. Iya . “ Food and Dietary Habits of the Hindu .” Food Technology (October 1992): 94–104....

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