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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Tucker, Charlotte Maria

Tucker, Charlotte Maria (8 May 1821)   Reference library

Arthur Mcphee

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...Society (ZSCMS). She continued her writing, producing missionary stories and tracts that were widely translated. With Rev. Francis Henry Baring , she helped start the Baring Union Christian College (later Baring Christian College * ) in Batala, Punjab. She also founded a primary school (later a high school) there. After her death the school was renamed ALOE. arthur mcphee Giberne, A. (1895), A Lady of England: The Life and Letters of Charlotte Maria Tucker , New York: Armstrong & Son. Montgomery, H.B. (1910), Western Women in Eastern Lands: An Outline...

Williams, James

Williams, James (11 October 1938)   Reference library

Wilbur Joacquim

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...to 1923 in the Punjab. He was the son of Williams, a medical missionary in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). James Williams was educated at Baring High School at Batala, then graduated from Forman Christian College * in 1906 . In 1907 , James Williams went to Japan as a member of the Indian delegation to the World Student Christian Federation held at Tokyo. During this trip, he was led to offer his life for service with the newly started NMS of India. As the first NMS missionary, he initiated work at Fazalabad in a far-off corner of Montgomery...

Green Theology (Eco-Theology) of India

Green Theology (Eco-Theology) of India   Reference library

Anand Veeraraj

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...and nature. Its implications for Christian life and witness are enormous and call for a radical new way of implementing theology, which advocates peace with God, peace with one's neighbours, and peace with nature. Green Theology initially emerged as an applied field of ethics in response to the growing environmental crisis. It combines the insights gained from the discipline of ecology with the arts for its praxis. Eco-theology was first articulated in the West by theologians such as Joseph Sittler , Richard A. Baer Jr , H. Paul Santmire , Daniel Day...

Guilds

Guilds   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,499 words

...), guilds in the Maghrib do not appear to have adopted these religious rituals per se. The existence of a corporative ritual (  futūwah , a term originally denoting “chivalry” but which came to refer more narrowly to life within trades and neighborhoods; see Cahen, 1970 ) has been documented for both Damascus (Qoudsî, 1885 ) and Cairo (Baer, 1964 ; Raymond, 1974 ): it possibly originated in Anatolian Turkey [ see Ibn Baṭṭūtah]. The futūwah manuals provide an image of rituals similar to those described in Evliya çelebi 's Seyahatname around the...

Denck, Hans

Denck, Hans (1500–1527)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
946 words

...of Key Texts . Leiden, 1991. Bauman seeks a close faithfulness to the German and publishes the original text on the facing page, with extensive biographical discussion and interpretation plus a useful bibliography. Denck, Hans . Schriften I: Bibliographie . Edited by G. Baring . Gütersloh, 1955. ——. Religiöse Schriften . Edited by W. Fellmann . Gütersloh, 1956. ——. Exegetische Schriften . Edited by W. Fellmann . Gütersloh, 1960. Furcha, E. J. , ed. and trans. Selected Writings of Hans Denck, 1500–1527 . Lewiston, NY, 1989. Contains Denck's major...

Deobandīs

Deobandīs   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,719 words

...political life at all. See also Aligarh ; India ; Iqbal, Muhammad ; Islam , subentry on Islam in South Asia ; Pakistan ; and Tablīghī Jamāʿat . Bibliography Faruqi, Ziya-ul-Hasan . The Deoband School and the Demand for Pakistan . New York: Asia Pub. House, 1963. Brief but useful treatment of the role of Deobandīs in support of the Congress movement. Friedmann, Yohanan . “The Attitude of the Jamīʿyat ʿUlamāʿ-i Hind to the Indian National Movement and the Establishment of Pakistan.” In The ʿUlamāʿ in Modern History , edited by Gabriel Baer , pp....

Monastic Communities of the Malankara Orthodox Church

Monastic Communities of the Malankara Orthodox Church   Reference library

M. John Panikkar

The Oxford Encyclopaedia of South Asian Christianity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
1,169 words

...mission activities in the church. They dedicate their lives with a motto of obedience, poverty, and celibacy. Their aim is to uplift the downtrodden and to fight against unjust social situations. They live with the bare minimum essentials of life and it is hoped that this organization would cater to the needs of the poor and continue as a living witness to our Saviour Jesus Christ. Mount Tabor Ashram (Society of the Sacred Transfiguration) was founded by Mar Thoma Dionysious, at Pathananpuram in 1926 , with the purpose of engaging itself in missionary...

Adam

Adam   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...noting that although Jubilees ascribes halakhic import to the life and times of Adam and Eve, it shows little interest in highlighting their glorious state prior to the sin or the sin itself; there is little more than the bare biblical narrative. The sectarian writings from Qumran seem to share this more pedestrian evaluation of Adam and his sin. In the New Testament, in Romans 5.12–21 , Paul uses the Adam-Christ typology to proclaim that, as sin and condemnation came through Adam, life came through Christ. In 1 Cor. 15.45–47 Adam is the ancestor...

Economic Development

Economic Development   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,259 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of women, and knowledge. See also Banks and Banking ; Interest ; and Modernization and Development . Bibliography Alizadeh, Parvin , ed. Iran's Economy: The Dilemmas of an Islamic State . London, 2000. Documents and explains Iran's economic deterioration in the 1980s and 1990s. Baer, Gabriel . Egyptian Guilds in Modern Times . Jerusalem, 1964. Structure, functions, and history of Egypt's guilds. Danielsen, Albert L. The Evolution of OPEC . New York, 1982. History of the oil price shocks and relations between host governments and international oil companies....

Capitulations

Capitulations   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,048 words

...13–55. Compares Venetian, English, and Dutch consular systems. Susa, Nasim . The Capitulatory Régime of Turkey: Its History, Origin, and Nature . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1933. Fulfills its title. Wansbrough, John , Halil İnalçik , Ann K. S. Lambton , and Gabriel Baer . “Imtiyāzāt.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam , new ed., vol. 3, pp. 1178–1195. Leiden, 1979. The most extensive account and the main source for this article; includes a comprehensive bibliography. Wood, Alfred Cecil . A History of the Levant Company . London: Routledge, 1935. Trade...

Funerary Rites

Funerary Rites   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,356 words

...odor and prevent abuse of the body by animals. Within the grave a niche is dug on the qiblah side of grave, or else a smaller trench is dug in the floor of the grave. Into this the body is placed without a coffin, lying on its right side, facing the qiblah . The cheek is bared and placed on a stone. The niche or trench is then sealed with bricks or stones, and earth is replaced in the grave and mounded slightly above ground level. These burial stipulations reflect the belief that the individual is questioned by two angels at death, and those who answer...

Kufr

Kufr   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
3,729 words

...Khārijīs that meant even a Muslim 's blood might be shed since he was outside the community of Islam by his disobedience. The opposite of this judgmental rigorism was the position attributed to the Murjʿah ; they asserted that anyone who faced the Muslim qiblah and performed a bare minimum of the ritual requirements was a Muslim and so could not be a kāfir . In the development of kalām or scholastic theology, discussions of kufr have a place in the controversies concerning the effects of sin upon the religious and legal status of a Muslim. Has a Muslim...

Cathedrals

Cathedrals   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
3,412 words

...and eradicate the dangerous ideas. A few years later heretics throughout France condemned by the Chambre ardente were forced to recant publicly and assist at a mass in their local cathedral. Their penitence was underscored by their appearance in white gowns, feet and head bare, carrying a lighted wax torch. Processions utilizing the relics of the cathedral or the Host were common in late medieval towns. These processions involved the entire town and concluded with the return of the sacred objects to the cathedral. Processions occurred on special feast...

Cromwell, Thomas

Cromwell, Thomas (1485–1540)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,436 words

...reform. None of the things undertaken—including the royal supremacy in the Church—came entirely out of the blue; the difference in the Cromwell era lay in the fact that the chief minister collected a program, added his own contributions, and turned proposals into reality. Given a bare eight years of by no means always free action, he could not be expected to bring all the matters tackled to a conclusion, especially as the primary tasks of creating the unitary state/church of England and seeing to the transfer of monastic property necessarily absorbed an...

ʿUlamāʿ

ʿUlamāʿ   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
6,578 words

...lead Muslim societies into modernization. Antoun, Richard T. Muslim Preacher in the Modern World: A Jordanian Case Study in Comparative Perspective . Princeton, 1989. Insightful study of the political roles of the ʿulamāʿ in Jordan, with particular reference to mosque sermons. Baer, Gabriel , ed.“The ʿUlamaʿ in Modern History.” Special issue of Asian and African Studies 7 (1971). Deals with Sunnī authorities in the Ottoman Empire, Syria, Sudan, Palestine, India, Egypt, and the Maghrib. Hassan, Mohammad Kamal . Muslim Intellectual Responses to “New Order”...

Scottish Confession

Scottish Confession   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,878 words

...future generations, and establish good order in the church. In its sacramental teaching on baptism and the Lord's Supper, “which alone were instituted by the Lord Jesus and commanded to be used,” the confession, following Calvin, rejected the idea of the sacraments as “naked and bare signs,” for they offered what they signified. They distinguished God's people from those outside his league, exercised “the faith of his children,” and sealed “in their hearts the assurance of his promise, and of that most blessed union” of the elect with Christ. In baptism (which...

Social-Scientific Approaches

Social-Scientific Approaches   Reference library

Johanna Stiebert

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
5,928 words

...Hebrew Bible . Minneapolis: Fortress, 2000. Rogerson, J. W. Anthropology and the Old Testament. Oxford: Blackwell, 1978. Rogerson, J. W. , and Judith M. Lieu , eds. The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Rooke, Deborah W. “The Bare Facts: Gender and Nakedness in Leviticus 18.” In A Question of Sex? Gender and Difference in the Hebrew Bible and Beyond , edited by Deborah Rooke , pp. 20–38. Hebrew Bible Monographs 14. Sheffield, U.K.: Sheffield Phoenix, 2009. Stiebert, Johanna . The Construction of Shame in...

Catechisms

Catechisms   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,199 words

...were met with substantial indifference, boredom, and even resistance. Catechesis had to be made mandatory: some form of coercion was necessary. Moreover, the simplest and shortest catechisms were the most successful: most of the faithful were unwilling to learn more than the bare essentials. Clergy of all confessions complained bitterly about the ignorant, immoral, and uncaring laity. By and large, the masses were not buying what the elite had to sell. To their great disappointment, sixteenth-century religious leaders had to relearn what seems to be a...

Qurʿānic Recitation

Qurʿānic Recitation   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,931 words
Illustration(s):
1

...completing the whole within a week. If the Arabic text of the Qurʿān can be rendered authentically in oral form, so also must any oral performance be amenable to accurate transcription. It is important to note, however, that authentic live recitation is more complete, because the bare written text does not contain the rhythm, sounds, modes, and fine points of pronunciation that the performed text exhibits. The Qurʿān is believed by Muslims to be revealed strictly orally to Muḥammad, who (it is believed) could neither read nor write. The technical skills of...

Iṣlāḥ

Iṣlāḥ   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,970 words

...and concentrated on the issues of Islamic religious reform through education and jurisprudence. In 1888 he was allowed to return to Egypt where he took a conciliatory attitude toward the British occupation and enjoyed the patronage of the British Consul General, Sir Evelyn Baring , better known as Lord Cromer. In 1895 he was appointed government representative of the Administrative Committee of the old Islamic al-Azhar University, and in 1899 he became the Grand Muftī of Egypt. He explained his political attitude then in the following terms: Political...

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