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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

CHILD, Lydia Maria Francis

CHILD, Lydia Maria Francis (1802–1880)   Reference library

Terrance MacMullan

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Cambridge Dict Amer Bio , Comp Amer Thought , Dict Amer Bio , Encyc Amer Bio , Nat Cycl Amer Bio, WWWHV Baer, Helene G. The Heart Is Like Heaven: The Life of Lydia Maria Child (Philadelphia, 1964). Clifford, Deborah P. Crusader for Freedom: A Life of Lydia Maria Child (Boston, 1992). Karcher, Carolyn L. The First Woman in the Republic: A Cultural Biography of Lydia Maria Child (Durham, N.C., 1994). Meltzer, Milton . Tongue of Flame: The Life of Lydia Maria Child (New York, 1965). Osborne, William S. Lydia Maria Child (Boston, 1980). Pratt,...

TRUTH, Sojourner

TRUTH, Sojourner (1797–1883)   Reference library

Nancy Hurd Schluter

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...spirituality has mostly been lost. Perhaps her photographs, promoted to cover travel costs, help present a more authentic picture of the many roles Sojourner Truth played. Also dominant have been the symbolism of her “Ain’t I a Woman” speech in Akron, Ohio, in 1851 , where she bared her breasts as proof of womanhood, and her famous query “Frederick, Is God Dead?” asked of Frederick DOUGLASS . Her influence as a feminist crusader, notwithstanding a meeting with President Abraham LINCOLN , is often overshadowed by that symbolism. A more composite picture...

Hurston, Zora Neale

Hurston, Zora Neale   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,087 words

...small-town life distinguished her fiction from fellow novelists, such as James Weldon Johnson, Jessie Fauset, and Nella Larsen. The folktales that Hurston recorded during her ethnographic research in the all-black town of Eatonville, Florida, figure prominently in her novels and short fiction. A notable scene in Their Eyes Were Watching God features a shift of perspective to a group of vultures, who after the funeral of an overworked mule elegize their meal with a call and response: “What killed this man?” The chorus answered, “Bare, bare fat.” Scenes...

OGILVIE, James

OGILVIE, James (1775–1820)   Reference library

John R. Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...utility of oration. By 1809 Ogilvie felt prepared to make an extensive tour of eastern cities, delivering prepared addresses on a wide variety of topics on timely social topics. His narrative of his life, included within his one book titled Philosophical Essays ( 1816 ), recounts this adventure in detail. His misstep in a Philadelphia church, a bare mention of skepticism towards Christianity, left even Dr. Benjamin RUSH unable to excuse such a terrible breach of public propriety. Ogilvie did have a positive reception from Jonathan MAXCY , President...

Discourse

Discourse   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,766 words

...an intermedium where one element is entwined with the other ( 1993 ). Juan Gris's Still Life with a Poem ( 1915 ) is an example of a “complementary art”; the poem by Pierre Reverdy affixed to its border in no way totalizes the painting, nor does the painting resolve any of the poem's ambiguities. The relation of poem and painting in no way confuses the two, in no way contaminates the autonomous integrity of the separate artifacts. Duchamp's The Bride Stripped Bare by Her Bachelors, Even ( 1915–1923 ), however, constitutes an “intermedium” in which the...

Kenyatta, Jomo

Kenyatta, Jomo   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
1,482 words

...Mau Mau. However, the colonial authorities, particularly the white settlers, believed him to be at the origin of all the unrest that had come to characterize African life in Kenya after 1945 . After all, he supported pan-Africanism and had lived in the Soviet Union. Even though Kenyatta publicly repudiated Mau Mau, he was arrested in October 1952 when the governor, Sir Evelyn Baring, declared a state of emergency that would not be lifted until 1960 . A rigged trial on accusations of sedition led to the condemnation of Kenyatta and four other KAU...

creativity

creativity   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,365 words

...the same distribution of IQ scores as their fellow students at university. In the American context, the budding scientist of high renown seems typically to be a ‘B+’ student: one who works hard when a topic captures his or her imagination, but otherwise does the bare minimum. Science springs to life for such individuals when they discover that instead of assimilating knowledge created by others, they can create knowledge for themselves—and are hooked from that moment onwards. It is the more detailed studies of thinking that indicate the tensions which underlie...

Lukács, György

Lukács, György (1885)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,565 words

...but also offers a defetishized understanding of it in a form that is in principle available for everyone. At the same time, the great artistic legacy of the past makes reexperienceable the historical path of the development of human self- and world-understanding, laying bare our own historicity. Art is the living memory and the actual self-consciousness of humankind. See also Marxism ; and Realism . Bibliography Works by Lukács Lukács, György Soul and Form (1910). Translated by Anna Bostock . Cambridge, Mass., 1974. Lukács, György A Modern...

HUGHES, Henry

HUGHES, Henry (1829–1862)   Reference library

Brian E. Butler

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...labor” or “warranteeism.” For Hughes, a market economy puts society at risk because it rests upon a type of competition that is inhumane to the worker. The “free labor” worker has no support network, no protection against the employer, and therefore cannot be guaranteed even bare subsistence. The result is a real threat of starvation. As opposed to this, in “warranteeism” all are guaranteed subsistence. In Hughes’ system, a “warrantor” occupies the position of the master, and the “warrantee,” according to Hughes, is in a position somewhat analogous to that...

TURNER, Jonathan Baldwin

TURNER, Jonathan Baldwin (1805–1899)   Reference library

David E. Pfeifer and John Shook

Dictionary of Early American Philosophers

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...I have made a man of him…. Art, in the sense of mere labor, mere servile imitation alone, is only animal…. But true labor, inspired by universal science and intelligence, is not only characteristically human, but also divine…. The principles of science, therefore, and not the bare manipulations of art, should form the sole end of industrial universities.” (quoted in Powell 1918 , 299–300) Bibliography Mormonism in All Ages, or, The Rise, Progress, and Causes of Mormonism: with the biography of its author and founder, Joseph Smith, Jr. (New York, 1842)....

manners

manners   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Mind (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
Science and technology, Psychology, Philosophy
Length:
1,635 words

...were translated into most of the European languages, for example the Art de plaire dans la conversation (The Art of Pleasing in Conversation, 1688 ) by Pierre d'Ortigue . The moral pressure of court life ‘to please’ was even apparent in the famous Letters by Lord Chesterfield ( 1694–1773 ), who wrote to his son: ‘By manière I do not mean bare civility; everybody must have that, who would not be kicked out of company: but I mean engaging, insinuating, shining manners: a distinguished politeness, an almost irresistible address’ ( 19 April 1747 )....

Hermeneutics

Hermeneutics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,568 words

...is also true in Gadamer's analysis, where understanding the other only begins when we enter into the play of question and answer that our experience of alterity or the refractoriness of the other opens up. But in this event the other does not give up its alterity; it is not laid bare. On the contrary, understanding can now only be clarified in terms of “being-with” the other (Mitsein) . Understanding means learning how to live with differences without reducing them to the same. This is perhaps the ultimate point of Gadamer's principle that “understanding is...

Caricature

Caricature   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
2,229 words
Illustration(s):
1

...art or any similarly “sacred” image, showing it to be a mere object; the disfiguration lays bare the transfiguration. Specific features of Baudelaire's aesthetic also recur in Mikhail Bakhtin's influential theory of the grotesque: the reflexivity of laughter, which implicates the one who laughs as well as the object of laughter; the ambivalent and contradictory nature of grotesque images, which incorporate old and new, death and rebirth, ugliness and fullness of life; the overcoming of isolation that they effect, integrating the grotesque body with the world...

Russian Aesthetics

Russian Aesthetics   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,552 words
Illustration(s):
2

...they would dismiss these by the door in order to admit them again through the window. Jakobson introduced the concept of “laying bare the device” (obnazhenie priema) , familiar in parody, burlesque, travesty, and commonly occurring in advertising. Laying bare the device means exposing the techniques of the author, stripped from their message or content, and so displacing or “defamiliarizing” that message or content. Laying bare the device was the favorite technique of the Formalists’ beloved Laurence Sterne in Tristram Shandy ( 1760–1767 ). Formalism...

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Von

Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Von (1775)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,327 words

...argued that because the artist's activity—aesthetic intuition—taps into the primary divided energy that first produces an objective world for the I and then ceaselessly conquers its objectivity by the I's knowledge and action, it is not a case of ordinary activity but a laying bare of foundations. What kinship can there be between the ground of being and the artist's activity? In the 1800 System , Schelling utilized a vocabulary given currency by Kant and Fichte for naming the ultimate active ground of being. Kant had defined sensible intuition in...

Constructivism

Constructivism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,496 words

...agent, as if what is at stake is the thrusting of new and experimental modes of construction onto the world that would abolish the old and create the radically new. The utopianism residing at the basis of Constructivist art derives from the rhetoric in this process of laying bare the work's internal structure, of designing it so that it gives the impression of a world under transparent construction. Gabo, theorist of Constructivism and chief writer of the Constructivist Manifesto ( 1924 ), speaks of the art object as a “demonstration” of its own...

God

God   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Thought

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Philosophy
Length:
2,557 words

...the center of the world’s major religions. Unarguably, the subject of God has been a complex philosophical problem in the history of knowledge. As such, no attempt is made here to put a seal of finality on this or previous scholarly views. However, our concern here has been to lay bare the reality of African philosophical conception and actual experience of God in African society and cosmogony. No one may lay claim to an absolute intra-African universality of culture and invariability of religious thought. In the same breadth, no one may deny the reality of a...

Nature

Nature   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
10,422 words

...of a life beneficial to all, as in the destruction of a universal form of beneficial life itself. The devastation or preclusion of natural beauty constitutes a decimation of noninstrumental relations to life-worldly nature. It is thus a destruction of positive contingency, realized freedom, and fulfilled time. It is the destruction of a crucial and irreplaceable sphere of the human world. Just as there is no life without nature as a regenerating sustenance for human beings and no tolerable life without nature as an intact sphere of life, there is for...

Cubism

Cubism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
3,970 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of late 1906–1907 , Les Demoiselles d' Avignon (Museum of Modern Art, New York), leads directly into Cubism represents a misreading of the direction taken there, which was fundamentally Expressionist in cast. A more important stimulus, leading toward Cubism, was provided by the bare, ascetic Spanish landscape of Horta de Ebro, a mountain village where Picasso stayed and which he painted (bringing back his own photographs of the site) in the Summer of 1909 . For Braque, a similar role was played in 1908 by the hilly landscape of L' Estaque in the south of...

Picasso, Pablo

Picasso, Pablo (1881)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Aesthetics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Philosophy
Length:
4,011 words
Illustration(s):
1

...of lines. Chiaroscuro modeling, as intense as in any Renaissance painting, remains, yet it is so inconsistently applied as to prevent resolution into solid, volumetric form. It is as if the machinery of illusionism were malfunctioning, chugging on without purpose, its devices laid bare. At the start of this process—that is, in the paintings of 1908 and 1909 —there was a pronounced sense of three-dimensionality; that, after all, was much of what motivated the assignation of the “Cubist” epithet. Yet, simultaneously, and then with increasing frequency, flatness...

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