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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Ralph Vaughan Williams

Ralph Vaughan Williams  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
Music
(1872–1958)British composer, musician, and teacher. A prominent composer of the first half of the twentieth century, he founded a new nationalist movement in English music. He was admitted to the OM ...
philosophy

philosophy  

(Greek, love of knowledge or wisdom)The study of the most general and abstract features of the world and categories with which we think: mind, matter, reason, proof, truth, etc. In philosophy, the ...
Sabar

Sabar   Reference library

Rainer Polak

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
641 words

...serouba, saoruba, tantan(go)] . Family of drums and a drum/dance genre of Senegal and Gambia. Specialist woodworkers carve the instruments from single pieces of hardwood. The drummers themselves attach the goatskin heads with wooden pegs. Most sabar drums are played with one bare hand and one light stick. (1) In Senegal sabar denotes a set of instruments associated with the griots of the Wolof people. The standard ensemble consists of two types of drums. The first type is slightly hourglass-shaped, open at the bottom; the single head (20–25 cm in diameter)...

Tchaikovsky [Chaykovsky], Pyotr Il′yich

Tchaikovsky [Chaykovsky], Pyotr Il′yich (1840)   Reference library

Geoffrey Norris and Marina Frolova-Walker

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,619 words

.... Tchaikovsky once wrote that his whole life was spent ‘regretting the past and hoping for the future, never being satisfied with the present’. This feeling of unease and dissatisfaction with life imbued much of his music, particularly in his later years, when the disasters of his personal life found expression in music of extraordinary emotional anguish and tragic drama. In these forceful, highly individual works, couched in an intensely lyrical idiom and scored in rich orchestral colours, Tchaikovsky laid bare his personality with vivid immediacy,...

Britten, (Edward) Benjamin

Britten, (Edward) Benjamin (22 Nov. 1913)   Reference library

Michael Kennedy

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,480 words

...Cathedral in 1962 . In this large-scale choral work, combining the Latin Mass with war poems by Wilfred Owen, Britten's pacifism found its most public and eloquent outlet. It was an immense popular success, to such an extent that he retreated afterwards, as if alarmed, into a barer, more private style. Friendship with the Russian cellist Mstislav Rostropovich led to a Cello Sonata ( 1961 ), the Cello Symphony ( 1963 ), and three unaccompanied suites for cello ( 1964 , 1967 , and 1971 ). Another feature of the 1960s was the trilogy of church parables, ...

symphonic poem

symphonic poem   Reference library

Percy Scholes, Judith Nagley, and Kenneth Chalmers

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
986 words

...of six symphonic poems entitled Má vlast (‘My Country’, c. 1872–9 ) describes scenes from the history and everyday life of his beloved Bohemia; and this began a fashion, as countless other composers were moved to attempt to illustrate their homeland through the symphonic poem, Dvořák , Suk , and ultimately Janáček among them. Russian nationalist composers were particularly attracted by the genre (e.g. Musorgsky , Night on the Bare Mountain , 1867 ; Borodin , In the Steppes of Central Asia , 1880 ), as was Tchaikovsky , whose ‘fantasy overture’ ...

Musorgsky, Modest Petrovich

Musorgsky, Modest Petrovich (9/21 March 1839)   Reference library

Marina Frolova-Walker

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,738 words

...is powerful and emotionally disturbing, and it astonished his friends for its spurning of traditional subject matter and traditional means of expression. The first orchestral work to display Musorgsky's new approach was the celebrated Ivanova noch′ na Lïsoy gore (‘Night on the Bare Mountain’, 1867 ), which he described thus: ‘The form and character … is Russian and original. Its tone is ardent and disorderly’. In 1868 Musorgsky embarked on a more ambitious project, the opera Zhenit′ba (‘Marriage’), which was to be a word-for-word setting of Gogol's prose...

Stravinsky, Igor Fyodorovich

Stravinsky, Igor Fyodorovich (1882)   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of Music (6 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,783 words

...years he wrote short, bare works, many of them religious in feeling and form, at the opposite pole from the opulence of his early successes. He is buried in the island cemetery of San Michele, Venice, near to Diaghilev, as he wished. Stravinsky's place as a seminal figure in 20th‐cent. music and individually as a great composer seems assured. Though it used to be said he ‘changed his skin’ every few years, and though he did, superficially at any rate, alter his style more than once, he remained fundamentally himself throughout his life. Like his antithesis...

Kithara

Kithara (i)   Reference library

Martha Maas

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
1,756 words

...not a gentle strum: the works of Aristophanes provide two onomatopoeic words imitating kithara sound, ‘toplatotrat’ and ‘trettanelo’, both with hard ‘t’ sounds that suggest a more percussive striking). Several references of the 4th century and later mention psilokitharistikē , ‘bare’ kithara playing, apparently an elaborate kind of solo playing (the only kind documented) invented in the 6th century; prizes for it were awarded at the Panathenaia. It seems to have had only a limited role. Kitharists tuned their instruments, not by turning the knobs at the ends...

Latin America

Latin America   Reference library

Robert Stevenson and Christopher Webber

The Oxford Companion to Music

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Music
Length:
2,651 words

...and femaleness, engendered the universe. In accordance with that principle, the greatest importance among Aztec instruments attached to the wooden teponaztli , struck with two rubber-tipped mallets, and the upright cylindrical huehuetl , tipped with jaguar skin, played with two bare hands. These two percussion instruments, each sounding two pitches, were customarily joined for ceremonial use. Aztec musicians enjoyed high social prestige and exemption from tribute payments. The Aztecs immediately took to European music in all its aspects. By 1561 Indian ins...

Clavichord

Clavichord   Reference library

Edwin M. Ripin, John Barnes, Alfons Huber, Beryl Kenyon de Pascual, and Barry Kernfeld

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
10,819 words
Illustration(s):
1

...1762, included descriptions of such types as the pedal clavichord and the cembal d’amour . He describes a buff stop in which half of each tangent is covered with leather, so that by shifting the whole keyboard in or out a very short distance, the strings are either struck by the bare or the covered surface of the tangents. He also describes a pantalon stop or ‘celeste stop’ (Ger. Cälestin ) which, when engaged, raises a series of extra tangents, each one close to the right of the corresponding normal tangent (the clavichord must be unfretted). In playing,...

Recording and playback devices

Recording and playback devices   Reference library

Arthur W.J.G. Ord-Hume, Jerome F. Weber, Jerome F. Weber, Jerome F. Weber, John Borwick, Anne Beetem Acker, D.E.L. Shorter, John Borwick, John Borwick, Anne Beetem Acker, and John Borwick

The Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Music
Length:
16,541 words
Illustration(s):
7

...are available, but few are entirely satisfactory for all purposes. In the earliest form of artificial reverberation, part of the signal from the studio microphones is applied to a loudspeaker in a reverberation room—often referred to, incorrectly, as an ‘echo chamber’—with hard, bare walls, floor, and ceiling; the reverberant sound, picked up by a microphone with its ‘dead’ side towards the loudspeaker (for stereophony, two microphones, spaced 2 metres or so apart, can be used), is then added to the studio output. This method has the disadvantage that the...

George M!

George M!   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the American Musical

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Performing arts, Music
Length:
312 words

...Fabray Ethel Levy Jamie Donnelly Anita Gillette Sam H. Harris Harvey Evans Red Buttons Joel Grey and Bernadette Peters got to reprise their stage performances in a 1970 NBC-TV version and were joined by a top-notch cast. Just as the Broadway production had been presented on a bare stage with pieces of scenery added for the big numbers, the television version took place in a studio and had the same rehearsal-like quality. Once again Grey was magnetic (even if not very close to the real Cohan in style) and the dancing was...

Our Town

Our Town   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the American Musical

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
Performing arts, Music
Length:
674 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Field Mr. Webb Paul Hartman Mrs. Webb Peg Hillias Rebecca Gibbs Shelley Fabares Our Town Musical Numbers “Our Town” “Love and Marriage” “The Impatient Years” “A Perfect Married Life” “Look to Your Heart” “Wasn't It a Wonderful Wedding?” space that the forty-member orchestra was put in another room and watched the monitor for cues. Because the original play was performed on a bare stage, the use of a television studio for the musical was in keeping with Wilder's vision. However, the playwright was not happy with the broadcast, thought it too sentimental, and...

Relâche

Relâche   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
328 words

... Scenic Design . Banes, Sally . An Introduction to the Ballets Suédois . Ballet Review 7 (1978–1979): 28–59. Beaumont, Cyril W. Complete Book of Ballets . London, 1937. Camfield, William . Dada Experiment: Francis Picabia and the Creation of Relâche . In Nancy Van Norman Baer , ed. Paris Modern: The Swedish Ballet 1920–1925 . San Francisco, 1995. Carroll, Noël . Entr'acte, Paris, and Dada . Millennium Film Journal 1 (Winter 1977–1978). Häger, Bengt . Ballets Suédois . Translated by Ruth Sharman . New York, 1990. Shattuck, Roger . The Banquet...

Walkowitz, Abraham

Walkowitz, Abraham (1878)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
418 words

...Jewish Museum ( 1949 ). Failing eyesight, which began in his fifties, prevented Walkowitz from pursuing his profession in later life. A prodigious body of early work, however, indissolubly links him to the dance and choreography of Isadora Duncan. Walkowitz, Abraham . Isadora Duncan in Her Dances . Girard, Kansas, 1945. Werner, Alfred . Abraham Walker Rediscovered . American Artist 43 (August 1979): 54–59. Nancy Van Norman ...

Shere, Charles

Shere, Charles (20 Aug 1935)   Reference library

Paul Attinello

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
697 words

...whose perceptual conundrums and whimsical humor are reflected in many of Shere's scores, especially the opera The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even ( 1964–84 ). Writings Thinking Sound Music: the Life and Work of Robert Erickson (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1995) with V. Thomson and M. Tede : Everbest Ever: Correspondence with Bay Area Friends (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1996) Works Stage: The Bride Stripped Bare by her Bachelors, Even (op, 3, Shere, after M. Duchamp), 1964–84 ; Interval: Sustaining Music for Audience for Dick Higgins (theater...

Rodin, Auguste

Rodin, Auguste (12 November 1840)   Reference library

The International Encyclopedia of Dance

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Performing arts, Dance, Music
Length:
855 words

...also Artists and Dance , article on Artists and Dance, 1760–1929 . Elsen, Albert E. Rodin . New York, 1963. Elsen, Albert , and Kirk Varnedoe . The Drawings of Rodin . New York, 1971. Rodin, Auguste . Art . Translated by Mrs. Romilly Fedden . Boston, 1912. Nancy Van Norman ...

Silverstein, Shel(by Alan)

Silverstein, Shel(by Alan) (25 Sept 1930)   Reference library

Thomas Goldsmith

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
263 words

...high-spirited “Cover of the Rolling Stone” (both CBS, 1972 ) They also backed him on his 1972 solo album, the boundary-pushing Freakin’ at the Freakers Ball (CBS). Other artists to record Silverstein's songs included Bobby Bare, Emmylou Harris, Loretta Lynn, and Burl Ives. Silverstein also wrote a well-received play, Wild Life , produced off Broadway in 1983 . Thomas...

Rudow, Vivian Adelberg

Rudow, Vivian Adelberg (1 April 1936)   Reference library

Daniel John Carroll

The Grove Dictionary of American Music (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Music, Social sciences, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
372 words

...to signify the motion of the waves. Rudow's music is published by Hollins and Park. Works ( selective list ) Orch: Force III, 1979 ; In the Pin Striped Suit, 1994 ; Dark Waters of Elba, 2005 ; Urbo Turbo, 2008 Solo inst: Rebecca's Song, pf, 1989 ; Lament, vc, pf, 1997 ; The Bare Smooth Stone of your Love, vc, pf, 1998 ; Dawn's Journey, pf, tape, 2005 Vocal: Journey of Water, S, pf, 1984 ; Purple Ice, 1v, pf, 1984–92 ; I pledge my love, T, pf, 1992 Elec: Changing Space, tape, 1972 ; Syntheticon, tape, 1973 ; Portrait of a Friend, T, nar, tape, ...

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