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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Ziegler, Philip [Sandeman]

Ziegler, Philip [Sandeman] (1929– )   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Writers and their Works (3 ed.)

... Addington, a Life of Henry Addington, First Viscount Sidmouth ( 1965 ) Non-Fiction The Black Death ( 1969 ) Non-Fiction William IV ( 1971 ) Non-Fiction Omdurman ( 1973 ) Non-Fiction Melbourne: A Biography of William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne ( 1976 ) Non-Fiction Diana Cooper ( 1981 ) Non-Fiction Mountbatten: The Official Biography ( 1985 ) Non-Fiction The Sixth Great Power: Barings 1762–1929 ( 1988 ) Non-Fiction King Edward VIII: The Official Biography ( 1990 ) Non-Fiction Wilson: The Authorised Life of Lord Wilson of...

Greig, Andrew

Greig, Andrew (1951– )   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Writers and their Works (3 ed.)

... The Order of the Day ( 1990 ) Poetry Electric Brae ( 1992 ) Fiction Western Swing ( 1994 ) Poetry The Return of John McNab ( 1996 ) Fiction When They Lay Bare ( 1999 ) Fiction That Summer [US: The Clouds Above , 2001 ] ( 2000 ) Fiction Into You ( 2001 ) Poetry In Another Light ( 2004 ) Fiction Preferred Lies ( 2006 ) Non-Fiction This Life, This Life ( 2006 ) Poetry Romanno Bridge ( 2008 ) Fiction At the Loch of the Green Corrie ( 2010 ) Non-Fiction Getting Higher: The Complete Mountain Poems ( 2011 ) Poetry...

Oates, Joyce Carol

Oates, Joyce Carol (1938– )   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Writers and their Works (3 ed.)

...The Perfectionist ( 1995 ) Drama We Were the Mulvaneys ( 1996 ) Fiction Tenderness ( 1996 ) Poetry The Collector of Hearts ( 1996 ) Fiction Short Stories Man Crazy ( 1997 ) Fiction Telling Stories ( 1997 ) Non-Fiction New Plays ( 1998 ) Drama My Heart Laid Bare ( 1998 ) Fiction Starr Bright Will Be With You Soon [writing as Rosamond Smith ] ( 1999 ) Fiction Broke Heart Blues ( 1999 ) Fiction Where I've Been and Where I'm Going ( 1999 ) Non-Fiction Blonde: A Novel ( 2000 ) Fiction Faithless ( 2001 ) Fiction Short Stories...

Smith, Michael

Smith, Michael (1954–83)   Reference library

Mario Relich

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Jamaica. In 1982 he toured Britain and Europe with great success. His life, however, was tragically cut short when four hired thugs stoned him to death during the Jamaican general-election campaign of 1983 . When challenged, he had reputedly said: ‘I-man free to walk anywhere in this land.’ Michael Smith’s most famous poem, ‘Me Cyaan Believe It’, is a sardonic protest against any limits which hedge the lives of ordinary people, and his Rastafarian contempt for the merely political bares its teeth in the following lines from ‘I an I Alone’: ‘Hey, lady, yuh...

Walcott, Derek

Walcott, Derek (1930–)   Reference library

Sven Birkerts

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Trilogy (Farrar, Straus, 2002 ) collects Walcott’s plays on the history of the West Indies. For criticism and context, see Conversations with Derek Walcott (University Press of Mississippi, 1996), ed. William Baer ; Bruce King , Derek Walcott: A Caribbean Life (Oxford University Press, 2000) ; Paul Breslin , Nobody’s Nation: Reading Derek Walcott (University of Chicago Press, 2001) ; and Edward Baugh, Derek Walcott (Cambridge University Press, 2006; repr. 2012). Sven Birkerts * spb...

Mahapatra, Jayanta

Mahapatra, Jayanta (1928–)   Reference library

Ranjana Ash

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...ending with the dance of the temple dancers. Mahapatra’s Selected Poems (Oxford University Press, 1987 ) includes a representative sample of his early work. In 2009 he made a selection of all his poems—including two later volumes from D.C. Books, Shadow Space ( 1997 ) and Bare Face ( 2000 )—in The Lie of Dawns: Poems 1974–2008 ( 2009 ). In the same year he received the Padma Shri award from the Indian government. See also the essays and memoirs collected in Door of Paper (2007—both Authors Press). For critical evaluation, see Bijay Kumar Das ,...

Tate, James

Tate, James (1943–)   Reference library

Roger Gilbert

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...at the University of Massachusetts. Tate is the funniest and most prolific of the group of young American surrealists who emerged in the late Sixties, a group which included * Simic , * Strand , Bill * Knott , and Charles * Wright . While much of this poetry aims for a bare, primitive quality that involves a restricted palette of images, Tate from the start has opted for a more wide-ranging, quirky, idiosyncratic brand of imagery less concerned with purity of effect than with surprise and bewilderment. His lines are often clotted with colourful nouns...

Winters, Yvor

Winters, Yvor (1900–68)   Reference library

Nicholas Everett

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...). In 1926 he married Janet * Lewis , and the following year was enrolled as a graduate student at Stanford University, where he stayed for the rest of his working life, becoming professor of English in 1949 . Winters' poetry falls clearly into two phases. His first three volumes (thought by many to be his best), The Immobile Wind ( 1921 ), The Magpie's Shadow ( 1922 ), and The Bare Hills ( 1927 ), all collected in The Early Poems: 1920–28 ( 1966 ), were written under the technical influence of * Pound , William Carlos * Williams , Marianne ...

Beckett, Samuel

Beckett, Samuel (1906–89)   Reference library

Alan Jenkins

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...exactness and arch punctilio. In all this there are glimpses of raw—all too raw—material that fuels the novels' and plays' ferocious comedy of ‘ignorance and impotence’. Poems in French of the late 1930s and 1940s, some of them translated by the author, achieve a bleaker, barer statement of recognizably Beckettian despairs (but with scarcely Beckettian solemnity), and move inexorably towards the brevity of ‘Mirlitonnades’ and the translations from the maxims of Sébastien de Chamfort (‘how hollow heart and full | of filth thou art’). Collected Poems...

Stevens, Wallace

Stevens, Wallace (1879–1955)   Reference library

Jay Parini

The Oxford Companion to Modern Poetry (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,771 words

...on Sunday’, ‘Sunday Morning’, ‘Tea at the Palace of Hoon’, ‘Peter Quince at the Clavier’, and ‘Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird’. These poems exhibit a dandified, almost baroque quality of language typical of Stevens' early work, which is much in contrast to the later, barer style. Harmonium suggests that Stevens had been closely reading the English Romantics—especially Keats—as well as the French Symbolists. The poems of this period are marked by high spirits, a fascination with sensual experience, and a fine sense of parody and pastiche. The...

Expressionism

Expressionism   Reference library

N. H. Donahue

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,081 words

..., Gustav Sack , Carl Sternheim , and Werfel , among others). The drama of expressionism, whether by painters (Kokoschka), by poets (Benn, Stramm), or by dramatists ( Walter Hasenclever , Georg Kaiser , Reinhard Sorge , and Ernst Toller ) stripped down the naturalist stage to bare essentials of decor, plot, and dialogue in order to convey anguish (the Schrei or scream) or mystical spirituality ( Geist or mind/spirit) in allegorical fashion. Highly stylized and abstract stage compositions with heightened contrasts in paint, sound, and lighting emphasize...

Long Poem

Long Poem   Reference library

T. Gardner

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017

...a way to move forward, comes to life in its own writing, weaving broken-off shards of the culture into a richly expressive inner idiom. Discovering that the nightly bombing of London during World War II opened new sources of inspiration even as it destroyed old forms, H.D.’s Trilogy ( 1944–46 ) attempts to “alchemize” a new manner of thinking out of melted-down bits of once-central texts. W. C. Williams , in Paterson ( 1946–58 ), responds to the work of his expatriate peers with “a reply to Greek and Latin with the bare hands,” turning not to the...

Portugal, Poetry of

Portugal, Poetry of   Reference library

J. Blackmore

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
4,264 words

...v. (1984) ; Songs of a Friend , trans. B. H. Fowler (1996) ; S. de M. Breyner , Log Book , trans. R. Zenith (1997) ; The Lusíads , trans. L. White (1997) ; Antologia de poesia portuguesa erótica e satírica , ed. N. Correia , 3d ed. (2005) ; Luís de Camões , trans. W. Baer (2005) ; F. Pessoa , A Little Larger Than the Entire Universe , trans. R. Zenith (2006) ; Poets of Portugal , trans. F. G. Williams (2007) ; The Songs of António Botto , trans. F. Pessoa (2010). Criticism and History: T. Braga , História da litteratura portugueza ...

African American Poetry

African American Poetry   Reference library

A. Rampersad and M. D. Jones

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
5,518 words

...Lowly Life ( 1896 ), for which William Dean Howells wrote an intro., Dunbar became renowned both for dialect poems about black life and also for poems written in standard Eng. on more elevated, putatively universal themes. Eventually, the tension between these two areas began to demoralize him. When Howells expressed in his preface a preference for Dunbar’s dialect verse, which captured for him what he saw as the true range of the black sensibility—between the poles of “appetite” and “emotion”—Dunbar mourned his fate as a black poet. “The Poet” bares his...

Dada

Dada   Reference library

C. Russell

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
1,584 words

...in the postmod. era. Like many modernist movements of the late 19th and early 20th cs., Dada questioned bourgeois society and its prevailing aesthetic conventions and sought to establish the bases and practices of a new art appropriate to its time. Dadaist rebellion, however, laid bare the underlying dynamics of modernist and avant-garde innovation: the primacy of negation within all new creation. Janco identified this dynamic as two “speeds” of creativity. The first, the “negative speed,” was a “purifying and scandalous force to consume the past and open up a...

Hungary, Poetry of

Hungary, Poetry of   Reference library

V. Varga

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
3,304 words

...), used a reduced, bare lang. to comunicate the anxieties of a moral being in the 20th c., always struggling with questions of faith. He belonged to a group of poets gathered around Újhold (New Moon), the short-lived but significant postwar literary magazine; it also included the poet Ágnes Nemes Nagy ( 1922–91 ). The great survivor of 20th-c. Hungarian poetry is György Faludy ( 1910–2006 ), who was acquainted with József yet lived into the 21st c. His poetic persona can be described as a vagabond, traveling and experiencing life to the fullest. He...

Romanticism

Romanticism   Reference library

B. Gasparov and M. Scott

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
6,118 words

...spirit imprisoned in the physical and social world, and ultimately, within their own body—a sense that condemns them to wanderings and the self-imposed ejection from the “normal” life. Byron and Byronism signified the advent of a phenomenon that Rus. modernists would later call “life-creation,” whereby the artist’s oeuvre transparently refers to his life and personality, while his life path acquires dimensions of an artistic “work.” The romantic principle of existential-spiritual duality received compelling representations in music and painting. In canvases by ...

United States, Poetry of the

United States, Poetry of the   Reference library

M. Cohen and M. Davidson

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
15,146 words

...can be felt in his long poem “A , ” composed throughout the poet’s life between 1927 and 1978 , where, in several instances, he quotes directly from Karl Marx ’s Das Kapital and relates the labor of writing to other forms of social materiality. Similarly, his colleague Oppen in Discrete Series ( 1934 ) creates short lyrics that attack capitalism and its excrescences: “Closed car–closed in glass– / At the curb, / Unapplied and empty: / A thing among others: …” The bare-bones style of such poems offers lang. unadorned, its surfaces and...

Scotland, Poetry of

Scotland, Poetry of   Reference library

R. D. Thornton, R. Watson, J. Macinnes, and M. Byrne

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
7,475 words

...Lallans (Scots), and Eng.; in this section, the concern is for the last two and their admixture. Because Lallans from Northumbrian Anglian is undeveloped, it has steadily lost ground to Eng. (of the 1,200 separate poems submitted to New Writing Scotland 5 [ 1987 ], e.g., “a bare sprinkling” is in Lallans); nevertheless, just how much freshness, range, color, and memorability it can still command is clear in Sterts & Stobies , the Scots poems of Crawford and Herbert, as well as in the poetic prose of W. Lorimer ’s brilliant trans. of The New Testament...

Indigenous Americas, Poetry of the

Indigenous Americas, Poetry of the   Reference library

G. Brotherston

The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2017
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies - poetry and poets
Length:
11,054 words

...fire and hurricane. While this is the pattern inherited in the sunstone, the Mexica make one critical change. For Coixtlahuaca, the fish-tail caiman seen rising from volcanic ash in Nexapa (curiously reminiscent of the life form inscribed on Chavin’s obelisk) reappears above in Tepexic, endowed with Quetzalcoatl feathers, atop a twin peak baring tooth and claw. For Tenochtitlan, the two caimans encircle the disk with imperial might, fish tails above, arms and heads (crowned by the septentrion) below. Moreover, their form invokes the metamorphic Xiuhcoanahual,...

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