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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

‘Clergymen of the Church of England’

‘Clergymen of the Church of England’   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
483 words

...public speaking does. Most of this class trudge through life on a bare subsistence. This situation needs to change. 7. The College Fellow Who Has Taken Orders is another category in need of refining. Fellows are required to be celibate. Formerly, when fellows were monks, and lifelong celibates, it was reasonable to ordain them without further preparation. Ordination is now usually a preface to clerical life outside the university. Not every fellow is necessarily fit for or suited to a clergyman's life. Fellows should be thoughtfully prepared for the sacrament...

silver fork fiction

silver fork fiction   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
274 words

...but he exposes exactly the people—like Adolphus Crosbie and the De Courcy family in The Small House at Allington —who form the uncritical centre of ‘straight’ silver fork fiction. Indeed, one of Trollope 's most endearing achievements is the perception with which he lays bare social pretence and silly preoccupation with trivia. He excels at characters who possess a self-satisfied appreciation of their own social worth and manners at whatever level of society. He deflates these pretences equally perceptively in the minor aristocracy, the self-satisfied...

letters

letters   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,522 words

...eternal bliss as the reward of my life here on earth’ (2, 691). He expects even his Maker—especially his Maker—to honour the terms of a contract. To an enquiry about George *Eliot 's irregular liaison with Lewes, Trollope responded evasively. He certainly did what he could to keep his own private life private, even in An Autobiography , and he would not have approved of his personal correspondence being published. Nevertheless, even here he has covered his tracks well, and his letters do not lay him embarrassingly bare. It is the ones to Kate *Field ,...

banks and currency

banks and currency   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
677 words

...those seeking a secure income from their capital. Riskier, but potentially more profitable, was the swelling international bond market dominated from the City of London by specialized merchant bankers like Barings and Rothschild. Trollope knew Baron *Rothschild and hunted over his Buckinghamshire estate in 1873 . The everyday transactions of life, however, were conducted largely in a coinage which was defiantly antiquated, despite Plantagenet Palliser 's lonely crusade to decimalize it in The Eustace Diamonds (LXXX). The basic penny was subdivided...

children of Dickens

children of Dickens   Reference library

Michael Allen

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,129 words

...affectionate, but with ‘less fixed purpose and energy than he could have supposed possible in a child of mine’ (to Coutts, 14 January 1854 ). At 18 he entered Barings Bank, where he stayed for four years, during that time getting caught up in the separation of his parents in 1858 ( see Dickens, Catherine ). With encouragement from Dickens he lived with his mother for a year, but then gave up Barings and went to Hong Kong to gain experience in the tea trade. In 1861 he returned to London and, aged just 24, set up in business for himself. That same year he...

manuscripts

manuscripts   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,019 words

...Characters’, which appears in Life's Little Ironies . (This manuscript is now in the Berg Collection at the New York Public Library.) It is the only substantial document containing first draft material, which is almost in note form; all other surviving manuscripts are at least one generation of copy beyond that stage. Some of the manuscripts written by Hardy under time-pressure for magazines ( The Trumpet-Major is an example) exhibit a kind of intermediate stage in which quite often the initial inscription is a bare line of narrative with minimal...

theatre

theatre   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
699 words

...conventional or figurative arena’. He had earlier covered similar ground in a contribution to a discussion in the Weekly Comedy ( 30 November 1889 ) of the possible establishment of a British ‘Théâtre Libre’, advocating that ‘the imagination should be appealed to rather than the bare eye-sight’. His perennially jaundiced attitude to theatrical realities is encapsulated in his response to an invitation ( 1908 ) to join a committee to establish a Shakespeare Memorial Theatre at Stratford-upon-Avon. Doubting that Shakespeare ‘appertains particularly to the...

utilitarianism

utilitarianism   Reference library

Grahame Smith

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,083 words

...children were seen as an erosion of their freedom of choice. Such misuses of utilitarian doctrine were laid bare by a major article in Household Words of 1854 , ‘Ground in the Mill’, by one of Dickens's most valued collaborators, Henry morley . Along with what Carlyle called the ‘cash nexus’, there is little doubt that Dickens saw the application of the principle of utility in education and employment as one of the major flaws in the social life of his period, and that he satirized it, in and out of season, in works as different as The chimes (in...

theatres and other places of exhibition

theatres and other places of exhibition   Reference library

Jim Davis

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,082 words

...in the late 1830s and Drury Lane in the early 1840s. Dickens, a frequent visitor to provincial theatres, provides a strong impression of the Portsmouth Theatre in Nicholas Nickleby with ‘its strong smell of orange-peel and lamp-oil, with an under-current of saw-dust’ and its ‘bare walls, dusty scenes, mildewed clouds, heavily daubed draperies, and dirty floors’ ( NN 23). Visiting a benefit at a theatre in a forlorn, out-of-season watering-place, he calculates the house to be ‘four and ninepence to begin with’, possibly warming up, in the course of the...

Late Lyrics and Earlier

Late Lyrics and Earlier   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,658 words

... December 1915 , very shortly after Mary's death on 24 November. The title of the undated ‘ “Sacred to the Memory” ’ is taken from the inscription on Mary's tombstone, designed by Hardy himself, in Stinsford churchyard; this brief but deeply felt poem seeks to make amends for the ‘bare conventionality’ of the inscription by insisting that the ‘full script’ of his feelings for the dead woman is inscribed on the landscape she knew. The perception of both tombstone and landscape as ‘texts’ is characteristic. Much less close to Hardy, and the object of a very...

Mr Scarborough's Family

Mr Scarborough's Family   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,964 words

... Mr Scarborough 's whole life had been passed in arranging tricks for the defeat of the law’ (LV). Scarborough 's machiavellian gusto is backed by an appropriately thorough knowledge of the laws of entail. Becoming disgusted with Augustus, he not only plans to leave Mountjoy all his personal property (including the library over which the rather slow-witted guardsman muses in melancholy fashion, estimating that three or four days' gambling at the club would see the end of it), he also contemplates leaving the real estate ‘bare’—‘Underscore that word’, he...

Macdermots of Ballycloran, The

Macdermots of Ballycloran, The   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Trollope

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,489 words

...the way films so often do from a tracking shot which blurs into flashback to the 1830s. Thaddeus ( Thady ), de facto head of the Macdermot family, his sister Euphemia ( Feemy ), and their alcoholic father Lawrence ( Larry ), remnants of an Irish Catholic gentry, eke out a bare existence from rents scraped together by their destitute tenants. The Macdermots are in debt to Joe Flannelly , builder of their ostentatious but ramshackle mansion, and persecuted by an attorney , Hyacinth Keegan , who is married to Flannelly 's daughter. Thady is reduced...

film adaptations and biographies

film adaptations and biographies   Reference library

Patsy Stoneman

The Oxford Companion to the Brontes

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,160 words

...first meeting, while Orson Welles is an overwhelming Rochester. Jane's rebellious speeches are toned down, and the plot severely truncated, omitting Jane's flight and the Rivers family, thus suggesting that all Jane needs is her man. This is a memorable film which owes only its bare elements to Charlotte Brontë . By contrast, Delbert Mann 's 1970 film tries hard to place Jane Eyre in the context of the burgeoning women's movement. Produced by Frederick Brogger for British Lion Pictures from a screenplay by Jack Pulman , the film features Susannah...

Satires of Circumstance

Satires of Circumstance   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,505 words

...title of the book and the stridency of the ‘Satires’, reviewers concentrated on them and almost completely ignored the far more important ‘Poems of 1912–13’. And, perhaps not unnaturally, they thoroughly disliked the ‘Satires’. Hardy ‘places life upon the operating table, and with an uncannily skilful knife, lays it bare to the public gaze, a shuddering, trembling mass of anguished nerves, inexpressibly vile and appalling. His poems are a valuable, but not a welcome, contribution to English poetry’, wrote a reviewer in the Globe ( 26 November 1914 ). The...

characterization

characterization   Reference library

David Paroissien

Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,241 words

...so ‘sadly, strangely altered! So careworn and dejected’ after her marriage. Even the ‘moral man’ Pecksniff, the embodiment of middle-class respectability, has a lascivious nature, one Dickens intimates when Pecksniff drinks too much in the company of Mrs Todgers , and later lays bare when the arch-hypocrite declares his love to Mary Graham . Fondness for caricature and for presenting figures possessing only a single defining trait number among Dickens's limitations, a cause of unevenness some have disparaged. Objections to this feature, however, should take...

Tess of the d'Urbervilles

Tess of the d'Urbervilles   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
4,135 words

...baptism were not the kind of incidents they were used to considering in fiction, even in 1889 . They asked for changes, but Hardy demurred; they agreed to pay, but would not publish, and Hardy suggested cancelling the agreement altogether—and this was done, on 25 September. This bare record of exchanges conceals powerful emotions. For fifteen years Hardy had been aware that the truths of sexual relations and their consequences which he wished to embody in his fiction were not acceptable to the editors of serial-publishing magazines—and he had permitted himself...

landscape

landscape   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
590 words

...alternates between the slow-moving life of the countryside and the busy world of advancing *industrialism . The coach journey here passes rapidly from one phase of English life to another, while in Adam Bede two distinct kinds of life are epitomized by the contrasting landscapes of Stonyshire, with its bare hills and cotton-mills, and Loamshire with its rich, undulating agricultural land. When Adam , Dinah , and Seth discuss their preferred landscapes ( AB 11), Dinah's preference for the bleak hills where life is hard reveals her puritan temperament...

society

society   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to George Eliot

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
1,845 words

...of her clan, because the cow she milked was one of a herd which had made the pastures bare. ( FH 3) Nevertheless, although the novel initially engages with the wider life of class and politics, after the election-day riot it retreats from the intractable conflicts of the public arena to the more manageable problems of personal relationships. As the riot makes clear, there is diminished confidence in the ordinary popular life that had seemed to provide society with its secure foundation and its future potential in Adam Bede and Silas Marner (...

imagery

imagery   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
3,140 words

...poetry and prose. Imagery of vision (and of its absence—sight as opposed to vision) features throughout both novels and poems. So, for example, the poem ‘At Waking’ picks up the ideas and much of the vocabulary of The Well-Beloved : the light of love goes out, to reveal the ‘bare | Hard lines’ of a ‘blank’ reality. So persistent is the imagery that Hardy's men seem to fall in love as much with a trick of the light as with the woman herself. Fancy Day is lit ‘nebulously’ by a candle when Dick Dewy first sees her, and at once falls in love with her ( UGT ...

Cornwall

Cornwall   Reference library

Oxford Reader's Companion to Hardy

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Literature, Literary studies (19th century)
Length:
2,717 words

...The magic in his eyes which he brought back from Lyonnesse was to last a lifetime, and something of that magic is found in A Pair of Blue Eyes . Its isolated setting in what at that time was a remote part of a distant county, with the descriptions of the wild, lonely hills, the bare black edifice which is St Juliot church, and the haggard cliffs of the coast—all these contribute to a poetic background that seems to have some mysterious power over the imagination. It is not surprising that it was a favourite novel of at least two poets, *Tennyson and ...

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