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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Baring, Evelyn, 1st earl of Cromer

Baring, Evelyn, 1st earl of Cromer   Quick reference

A Dictionary of British History (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
143 words

..., Evelyn, 1st earl of Cromer ( 1841–1917 ). Proconsul. Baring spent the years 1858–72 in the Royal Artillery and then went to India as private secretary to his cousin, Lord Northbrook , the viceroy. In 1877 he began his life's work when he was sent as commissioner to Egypt to attempt the enormous task of placing its finances on a firm footing. For 30 years he was the effective power in the land, comptroller‐general from 1879 to 1880 , consul‐general 1883–1907 . Restoration of Egyptian solvency meant withdrawal from the Sudan and Baring acquiesced,...

ʿAbbas Hilmi II

ʿAbbas Hilmi II (1874)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,145 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Hilmi II died in Geneva in 1944 , leaving substantial memoirs and diaries that recorded his life from his own unique angle. [ See also Farid, Muhammad ; Fuʾad I, Ahmad ; Ismaʿil ; Kamil, Mustafa ; and Kitchener, Horatio .] bibliography Abbas, Hilmi II . The Last Khedive of Egypt: Memoirs of Abbas Hilmi II , edited and translated by Amira Sonbol . Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, 1998. Baring, Evelyn (Earl of Cromer). Abbas II . London: Macmillan, 1915. Baring, Evelyn (Earl of Cromer). Modern Egypt . l2 vols. London: Macmillan, 1908. Goldschmidt,...

Rischbieth, Bessie Mabel

Rischbieth, Bessie Mabel (1874–1967)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Australian History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
321 words

...of her aversion to party politics. She became a passionate environmentalist, and attracted widespread public attention at the age of 89 when, characteristically well-dressed except for her bare feet, she confronted the bulldozers filling in the Swan River for a freeway. In the same year she published The March of Australian Women ( 1964 ) as a record of her life's work. Feminist histories such as Marilyn Lake , Getting Equal (1999) , and Fiona Paisley , Loving Protection? (2000) , have more recently paid her increasing attention. Dianne...

Boxing.

Boxing.   Reference library

Elliot J. Gorn

The Oxford Companion to United States History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2004
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
528 words

...as a badge of masculine failure, so that African American champions like Jack Johnson , Joe Louis , and Muhammad Ali were extremely influential in their day. See also Gender ; Immigration ; Journalism ; Popular Culture ; Sports ; Working-Class Life and Culture . Elliott J. Gorn , The Manly Art: Bare-Knuckle Prize Fighting in America , 1986. Jeffrey Sammons , Beyond the Ring: The Role of Boxing in American Society , 1988. Elliot J....

Louis, Joe

Louis, Joe (b. 13 May 1914)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,782 words
Illustration(s):
1

...bearer and representative. Louis's next four bouts, through the beginning of the following year, further cemented his reputation as a great fighter. He battered the contenders King Levinsky , Paolino Uzcudun , and Charley Retzlaff , and he knocked out the former champion Max Baer . Despite deep distress among many whites that a black fighter was beating white fighters in high-profile matches, the public was generally accepting of Louis, and a championship bout seemed inevitable. However, Louis suffered a setback on 19 June 1936 , losing by knockout to the...

Asthma

Asthma   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,435 words

...Health 90, no. 6 (2000): 929–935. McDermott, Michael , Julio Silva , Robert Rydman , et al.“ Practice Variations in Treating Urban Minority Asthmatics in Chicago. ” Journal of Medical Systems 20, no. 5 (October 1996): 255–266. Pachter, Lee M. , Susan C. Weller , Roberta D. Baer , et al.“ Variation in Asthma Beliefs and Practices among Mainland Puerto Ricans, Mexican-Americans, Mexicans, and Guatemalans. ” Journal of Asthma 39, no. 2 (April 2002): 119–134. Weiss, Kevin B. , A. Sonia Buist , and Sean D. Sullivan , eds. Asthma's Impact on Society: The...

Mubarak, ʿAli

Mubarak, ʿAli (1823)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,060 words

...inherited from a previous era. Above all, he cared about the welfare of the Egyptian people, which, however, he sought to advance through reform and development from above, rather than democracy or revolution from below. [ See also Ismaʿil ; and Maqrizi, al- .] bibliography Baer, Gabriel . Studies in the Social History of Egypt . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969. Heyworth-Dunne, J . An Introduction to the History of Education in Modern Egypt . London: Luzac & Co., 1938. Mitchell, Timothy . Colonising Egypt . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge...

Life and Times of Frederick Douglass

Life and Times of Frederick Douglass   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History, 1619–1895: From the Colonial Period to the Age of Frederick Douglass

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,095 words
Illustration(s):
2

...said the imperious master; he was obeyed. ‘Take off your jacket, you old rascal!’ and off came Barney's jacket. ‘Down on your knees!’ down knelt the old man, his shoulders bare, his bald head glistening in the sunshine, and his aged knees on the cold, damp ground. In this humble and debasing attitude, that master, to whom he had devoted the best years and the best strength of his life, came forward and laid on thirty lashes with his horse-whip.” Recounting Gore's shooting of the slave Bill Denby, Douglass says: “He offended this Mr. Austin Gore, and in...

Farmer, James

Farmer, James (b. 12 January 1920)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,489 words

...Fire: America in the King Years, 1963–65 . New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998. Volume 2 of Branch's three-volume work on the civil rights movement. Farmer, James . Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement . With a new preface. Foreword by Don Carleton . Fort Worth: Texas Christian University Press, 1998. First published by Arbor House, 1985. Farmer's own account of his life and the civil rights movement. Farmer, James Leonard, Jr. “James Leonard, Jr., and Lula Peterson Farmer Papers.” Center for American History, University of Texas at...

Kariuki, Josiah Mwangi

Kariuki, Josiah Mwangi (1929)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
574 words

...years of schooling. He viewed education as a weapon for Kenyans to successfully fight their European opponents. After completing his studies in Uganda at King’s College, Kariuki returned to Kenya. Shortly after Kenya was placed under a military state of emergency by Sir Evelyn Baring, Kariuki joined the Mau Mau uprising, taking his oath on 20 December 1953 . His responsibilities in the movement included securing money and housing for Mau Mau participants. Kariuki was arrested and imprisoned and passed through fourteen detention camps beginning in Kowop, a...

Nsue Angüe, María

Nsue Angüe, María (1948– )   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,092 words

...recuperación de la memoria: creación cultural e identidad nacional en la literature hispano-negroafricana , edited by M’baré Ngom, pp. 101–113. Alcalá de Henares, Spain: Servicio de publicaciones de la Universidad de Alcalá, 2004. Limonta, María Zielina . “ Ekomo: Representación del pensamiento mítico, la magia y la psicología de un pueblo ‘fang’ .” Afro-Hispanic Review 19.1 (Spring 2000): 93–101. N’gom, M’baré . “Narrative of a Woman’s Life and Writing: María Nsue Angüe’s Ekomo .” In Daughters of the Diaspora: Afro-Hispanic Writers , edited by Miriam De...

Ejidos

Ejidos   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Mesoamerican Cultures

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2006
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
961 words

...independent yeoman farmers. The government hoped these small farmers would provide for themselves and be more driven by market incentives; instead, the legislation facilitated the spread of the great estates at the expense of the villagers. These contradictions were laid bare in the Mexican Revolution of 1910 , and that violent upheaval temporarily halted the Liberal project. Spontaneous land distribution began during the armed phase of the revolution when agrarian insurgents began to parcel out hacienda land to villagers. Born out of this pressure...

Kennedy, Adrienne

Kennedy, Adrienne (13 September 1931)   Reference library

Black Women in America (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
960 words
Illustration(s):
1

...emotion that lay bare the inner conflict of her protagonists. Adrienne Kennedy has won three Obie Awards for her plays and has taught drama and playwriting at Yale, Harvard, Brown, and the University of California at Berkeley. Courtesy of Signature Theatre Company, New York, by permission of Adrienne Kennedy Kennedy’s later plays include An Evening with Dead Essex , A Movie Star Has to Star in Black and White , and Orestes and Electra . People Who Led to My Plays ( 1987 ) is a scrapbook-like memoir of her childhood and early adult life. Deadly Triplets ...

Huerta, Dolores

Huerta, Dolores (b. 1930)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
2,036 words

...and community organizations. She lives with Richard Chavez , her partner of over twenty-five years. See also Chávez, César ; Labor and Labor Strikes ; Latina Labor and Community Organizers ; and United Farm Workers . Baer, Barbara L. “Stopping Traffic: One Woman's Cause.” The Progressive , September 1975, 38–40. Felner, Julie . “For a Life Time of Labor Championing the Rights of Farmworkers.” Ms. , January/February 1998. Griswold del Castillo, Richard , and Richard A. Garcia . “Co-Leadership: The Strength of Dolores Huerta.” In César Chávez: A Triumph of...

Alfaro, Luis

Alfaro, Luis (b. 1961)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
962 words

...subject of his early writing and formed the basis of Downtown ( 1990 ), his signature performance piece. Downtown is a multicharacter monologue that scrutinizes Los Angeles by laying bare the glorification of the city and the glamorization of its people fabricated by Hollywood and the entertainment industry. In Downtown , as in much of his work, Alfaro brings to life an alternative city, one readily visible but rarely examined and one that shaped Alfaro's sense of self as a gay Chicano. Downtown is also one of the first explicit ruminations on...

Thurman, howard

Thurman, howard (b. 18 February 1900)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of African American History 1896 to the Present

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
835 words

...African American students and funds for literary, scientific, religious, and charitable projects. He died in San Francisco. [ See also Civil Rights Movement ; Congress of Racial Equality ; Farmer, James ; Howard University ; and Religion .] Bibliography Farmer, James . Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement . New York: Arbor House, 1985. Thurman, Howard . With Head and Heart: The Autobiography of Howard Thurman . New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979. — Gail K...

Kaggia, Bildad

Kaggia, Bildad (1922)   Reference library

Dictionary of African Biography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
809 words

...and began to provide wholescale support and logistics to the Kenya Land and Freedom Army, commonly known as “Mau Mau.” The movement grew rapidly in numbers and strength, and by 1952 , attacks were frequent. At midnight on 20 October 1952 , the new colonial governor, Sir Evelyn Baring, declared a state of emergency. Of the 183 people arrested initially, six men, Bildad Kaggia and Jomo Kenyatta among them, were sent to trial in Kapenguria in northern Kenya, where they were convicted of organizing an unlawful society and sentenced to seven years detention with...

local government to 1707

local government to 1707   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to Scottish History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
869 words

...15th centuries in local magnate families, recognizing the magnates' vital role. The crown recovered numerous heritable sheriffships in the early 17th century; they were abolished in 1748 , along with regalities (whose practical powers had long been declining) and baronies (the bare title remained). All justice thereafter fell under direct government control. The 16th‐century expansion of professional civil justice in Edinburgh, especially the Court of Session , undermined the jurisdiction of all local courts. In the 1530s the Court of Session took over the...

Rodríguez, Luis J.

Rodríguez, Luis J. (b. 1954)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,053 words

...to rescue young people from gang activity when his eldest son Ramiro took to the streets. Rodríguez did it by writing an autobiographical account of his life as a gang member and of breaking away from what he calls “la vida loca.” In his book Always Running: La Vida Loca, Gang Days in L.A. ( 1993 ), Rodríguez bares his soul, and begs his son to learn from his mistakes and not enter the gang life. Always Running is a father's plea to his son to stay away from gangs, but it's also a plea to society not to condemn his son for taking the path he did, but...

Vega, Ed

Vega, Ed (b. 1936)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Latinos and Latinas in the United States

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Regional and National History
Length:
1,451 words

...novel was based on three structural elements, travel, “subalternity,” and autobiography, as is The Comeback . As literary production intersects with social practice, one may conclude that Vega's style, strategically speaking from within the system as a U.S. Latino jíbaro , lays bare the “picaresque structure of asymmetrical power relations” (Cesareo, p. 121) through what can be best described as a poetics of cunning. See also Literature and Puerto Ricans . Bibliography Primary works Augenbraum, Harold , and Margarite Fernández Olmos , eds. U.S. Latino...

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