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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Streets, Roads, and Highways in the United States

Streets, Roads, and Highways in the United States   Reference library

Peter Norton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,173 words
Illustration(s):
4

...and by Brian Balogh on government support for roads and other internal improvements. 47 For work on the National Road and on turnpikes, readers should consult the anthology edited by Karl Raitz, 48 and an article by Daniel Klein and John Majewski. 49 Together with Christopher Baer, Klein and Majewski have also examined plank roads. 50 William Cronon’s pathbreaking environmental history of Chicago and its vast hinterland, Nature’s Metropolis , documents the transformative power of waterways, roads, and railroads in the Midwest. 51 For 19th-century streets...

Infanticide

Infanticide   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,222 words

...the Great Agrarian Societies of Asia. ” Journal of Comparative Family Studies 26 (2005): 205–226. A synthesis of research on infanticide in India, Japan, and China to address questions on its scale, motivations, and circumstances. Hudson, Valerie M. , and Andrea M. den Boer . Bare Branches: The Security Implications of Asia's Surplus Male Population . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004. Analysis of gender inequality as manifested in surpluses of young adult males in China and India primarily because of the practice of sex-selective abortion, which may breed...

Cycling

Cycling   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,112 words
Illustration(s):
1

...The transmission chain multiplied the amount of leg power applied to the wheel without requiring greater effort by the rider, thereby conserving energy and increasing the distances that could be ridden. The use of vulcanized rubber tires and, later, inflatable inner tubes to cover bare wheel rims made riding machines more comfortable and made the transmission of energy to the wheels more efficient by reducing ground vibrations. Frames made of rolled steel-alloy tubing greatly increased the durability and lessened the weight of the bicycle. Mass production of the...

Banking, International

Banking, International   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
1,445 words

...rates of interest. The international banking community also devised swaps, another form of financial derivative that have a longer life than futures and forwards. These financial derivatives made impossible business deals possible. The nominal value of swaps in existence at the start of the twenty-first century was in the tens of trillions of dollars, all of which provided income for international bankers. The closing of Barings Bank in the mid-1990s due to the activities of a single rogue trader is a case in point of the risks associated with financial...

Freudianism

Freudianism   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,002 words
Illustration(s):
1

...applications have varied wildly. Although the Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud ( 1856–1939 ) wrote The Interpretation of Dreams in 1899 , he wanted his most important work yet to be associated with the new century, so he published it the next year. Here, Freud laid out the bare bones of his psychoanalytic structure: the theory of infantile sexuality, repression, and the unconscious. He wished to rise in fame and notoriety and understood that his work's uniqueness had yet to prove its therapeutic value, and though Richard von Krafft-Ebing and Havelock...

Egypt

Egypt   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
4,045 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Cairo ; Arab League ; Arabs and the Arab World ; Cairo ; Condominium Agreement ; Dinshaway Incident ; Institut d'Égypte ; Mamluks ; Mixed Courts of Egypt ; Ottoman Empire ; Sudan, Anglo-Egyptian ; Suez Canal ; Suez Crisis ; and United Arab Republic . ] Bibliography Baer, Gabriel . Studies in the Social History of Modern Egypt . Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969. Burrell, R. Michael , and Abbas R. Kelidar . Egypt: The Dilemmas of a Nation, 1970–1977 . Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1977. Cooper, Mark . The...

Banking

Banking   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
3,478 words
Illustration(s):
1

...clients—the wealth of the gentry or the assets of companies—which further expanded their banking business. Several dozen British merchant banks emerged as leaders, including Rothschild (founded in 1798 , it is the only one still in existence in the early twenty-first century), Baring , Morgan Grenfell , Kleinwort , Benson , Schröder , and Hambro , among others. But continental Europe was equipped with similar institutions, either for refinancing or trading on private or state bills, to tackle foreign exchange business, or to manage the wealth of...

Working Class

Working Class   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
2,668 words
Illustration(s):
2

...relationship, one that can be replaced rather quickly by other sources of income. That is one reason why the dividing line between workers and the lumpenproletariat (people who survive by means of crime, prostitution, and so on) is not always easy to draw. “In societies in which bare subsistence is the norm for a high proportion of all the working class, and where men, women, and children are compelled to seek alternative means of subsistence, as distinct from their traditional ones, the lumpenproletariat is barely distinguishable from much of the rest of...

Public Space in American Cities

Public Space in American Cities   Reference library

Jessica Sewell

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
6,942 words

...clothing and walking with a swagger. While the rules of decorum for the middle class and elite required women to wear dull colors and generally make themselves as invisible as possible, Bowery Gals wore vivid and bright colors with elaborate hats without veils, emphasizing their bare faces and freedom of vision. 12 Taking possession of the streets and sidewalks served as a way of asserting one’s rights and presence as a member of the public. Promenading, whether by elites or by working-class youths, was a mode of asserting possession of public spaces, as well...

The Sixties

The Sixties   Reference library

Robert O. Self

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
14,202 words

...the war in Vietnam. By the later years of the decade, few in the antiwar movement believed anything that government officials said about the war, and the long history of official deceit was laid bare when the Pentagon Papers were published in 1971 by the New York Times , the Washington Post , and other major newspapers. Across virtually every sector of American life in the 1960s, the authority of basic institutions was not simply called into question but often openly disbelieved and publically ridiculed. The anti-authoritarian ethos extended beyond the social...

Gambling in Northern US Cities

Gambling in Northern US Cities   Reference library

Matthew Vaz

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
11,600 words
Illustration(s):
4

...establishments in the city that permitted gambling.” The Society estimated that these establishments employed an incredible 25,000 people. 3 The gambling houses and taverns of the period were either classed as “low dens” where the poor and working classes made their bets in bare surroundings and a rowdy atmosphere, or “first class hells” where the well-to-do gambled in style. 4 The most commonly offered games were poker, roulette, and the most popular game of the era, faro, in which gamblers bet on the turning of a card. Chicago had not even incorporated...

Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Soviet Union

Russia, the Russian Empire, and the Soviet Union   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
7,664 words
Illustration(s):
5

...divisions of their opposition effectively. In the meantime, they resorted to emergency measures that nations usually embrace in wartime: the nationalization of industry and the requisition of grain without compensation, “war communism.” These practices gave the Bolsheviks the bare minimum of logistical subsistence necessary to win the war. By spring 1921 the war was won, but the economy was almost lost. The workers in the cities suffered inflation, low wages, distortions of distribution, and a general scarcity of food. Where, they asked, as they went on...

Public Sector Unions in the United States

Public Sector Unions in the United States   Reference library

Joseph E. Hower

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
8,631 words

...to curb it. The notion that government employment was fundamentally different from private business first took hold in the late 19th century in response to political agitation in the postal service. As early as 1895 , Postmaster General William Wilson issued an order that bared employees of the US Post Office from traveling to the nation’s capital “for the purposes of influencing legislation before Congress.” 4 President Theodore Roosevelt extended the restriction in 1902 , instituting a “gag rule” that prohibited any federal employee from individually...

Economy

Economy   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
9,938 words
Illustration(s):
1

...and locally financed business initiatives. By the 1980s Bangkok had created a sophisticated capital and financial intermediation sector to rival Singapore and Hong Kong. The substantial urban middle class and wealthy elite enjoyed lifestyles in stark contrast to the bare subsistence and modest living standards in the rest of the country. New industrial sectors had a high import content (including raw materials, equipment, technology, and components for local assembly), while urban consumerism also boosted imports of high-tech and luxury goods. By...

American Labor and Working-class History, 1900–1945

American Labor and Working-class History, 1900–1945   Reference library

Jeffrey Helgeson

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Urban History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
13,487 words
Illustration(s):
4

...farm income declined by 60 percent, and one-third of famers lost their land in the 1930s. The industries that had driven the prosperity of the 1920s were now failing; by 1932 , the automobile industry was producing at only 20 percent of its capacity. The stock market crash laid bare the underlying weaknesses in the US economy and created mass unemployment, poverty, and insecurity. President Herbert H. Hoover responded to the crash much more energetically than previous presidents had in similar crises, but his efforts were too limited to meet the depth of this...

Decolonization

Decolonization   Reference library

Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History, Contemporary History (post 1945)
Length:
17,779 words
Illustration(s):
4

...II decolonization may be traced to the aftermath of the Great War more than two decades earlier. Although the European colonial powers, Britain included, owed their victory over the Central Powers at least in part to the contributions of their colonial holdings, the war also laid bare the tenuous and temporary nature of the imperial bond. The 1917 Montagu Declaration, for example, admitted for the very first time that eventual independence for India was an official British goal. Such promises revealed a consistent British effort to defuse pent-up colonial...

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