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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a good ‘second eleven’. In keeping with gentlemen-amateur traditions, these composers appeared to lack the visionary single-mindedness which activated their continental contemporaries. Though they were no feebler than their immediate predecessors, their limitations were now laid bare by contrast: creative impotence was openly mocked by fecundity throughout Europe. Only such craftsmen as Broadwood, Dodd, and Tubbs, and a few performers, particularly women, were truly fit to join the newly exalted company of musicians [ see *women musicians and composers ]....

Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...garden and a grave.’ And though his central focus is on the process of becoming a poet, he voices the links between the expansion of a global empire, presented as a frightening terrain of silent bats and dark scorpions, and a transformed locality left behind, where ‘even the bare-worn common is denied’. In this population movement from the country to the city, and from city to parts foreign, many of the sources for the nostalgic myth of rural England were generated. The intensity of capitalist production in the countryside in Britain precluded the absolute...

Denck, Hans

Denck, Hans (1500–1527)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
946 words

...of Key Texts . Leiden, 1991. Bauman seeks a close faithfulness to the German and publishes the original text on the facing page, with extensive biographical discussion and interpretation plus a useful bibliography. Denck, Hans . Schriften I: Bibliographie . Edited by G. Baring . Gütersloh, 1955. ——. Religiöse Schriften . Edited by W. Fellmann . Gütersloh, 1956. ——. Exegetische Schriften . Edited by W. Fellmann . Gütersloh, 1960. Furcha, E. J. , ed. and trans. Selected Writings of Hans Denck, 1500–1527 . Lewiston, NY, 1989. Contains Denck's major...

Jones, William

Jones, William (1726–95)   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009

...all, an ardent admirer of the political ideas of Voltaire. His career gives the lie to the notion that only Welsh Dissenters and intellectuals who dwelt in London were receptive to the cause of egalitarianism and social justice. Jones spent virtually the whole of his life eking out a bare living in a boggy upland farm in mid-Wales; but he corresponded regularly with leading Welsh radicals, read the work of * Paine and Voltaire avidly, and familiarized himself with the terrain, social mores, and politics of America. Known as ‘the rural Voltaire’, he...

Sculpture

Sculpture   Reference library

James N. Carder

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...Art, Washington, DC.) Hiram Powers proved successful where Greenough had failed, at least as far as public perception was concerned. Before leaving in 1835 for study in Italy, where he also would remain for the remainder of his life, he sculpted an acclaimed bust portrait of Andrew Jackson draped in a toga, but without bare chest, and chose to realistically depict Jackson’s aged and care-worn face—reportedly at the president’s request—much in the manner of ancient Roman Republican portraiture (Metropolitan Museum of Art). His Greek Slave of 1843 ,...

Constitutions of the States

Constitutions of the States   Reference library

Lawrence M. Friedman

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the end of the new century’s first decade. These cases stand in the shadow of the American Enlightenment; together, they mark the liberalizing effect over time of a constitutional commitment to the principle of equality, and to the continuing legitimacy of a judicial check on the bare desire of a majority to single out a political minority for differential treatment. It seems, then, that the past was prologue: borne of Enlightenment values, state constitutions and state courts are, more than 200 years after the ratification of the United States Constitution,...

Politeness

Politeness   Reference library

Jennifer Van Horn

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...constructed Georgian mansions polite people divided public spaces intended for entertaining visitors from private ones. They also refined the interiors of houses to make them more comfortable and to better accommodate their use as sites for lavish display, covering previously bare walls with wooden paneling and substituting fireplaces surrounded by ornamental plaster work for large brick hearths. The assemblage of material goods, genteel architecture, and decorous bodies that typified eighteenth-century politeness is immortalized in the conversation piece,...

Rush, Benjamin

Rush, Benjamin (1746–1813)   Reference library

Nina Reid-Maroney

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...came to define the Enlightenment’s troubled legacy for women through much of the nineteenth century. Liberal, optimistic, and progressive as his views on race, reform, and education may have been, Rush stumbled on the question of women’s equality. In the process, he laid bare the Enlightenment’s most profound limitations. Although, as his biographers have noted, Rush seldom left Philadelphia once he re-turned from Edinburgh, he positioned himself at the center of Philadelphia’s Enlightenment and wherever possible—through correspondence, publication,...

Cathedrals

Cathedrals   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
3,412 words

...and eradicate the dangerous ideas. A few years later heretics throughout France condemned by the Chambre ardente were forced to recant publicly and assist at a mass in their local cathedral. Their penitence was underscored by their appearance in white gowns, feet and head bare, carrying a lighted wax torch. Processions utilizing the relics of the cathedral or the Host were common in late medieval towns. These processions involved the entire town and concluded with the return of the sacred objects to the cathedral. Processions occurred on special feast...

Cromwell, Thomas

Cromwell, Thomas (1485–1540)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,436 words

...reform. None of the things undertaken—including the royal supremacy in the Church—came entirely out of the blue; the difference in the Cromwell era lay in the fact that the chief minister collected a program, added his own contributions, and turned proposals into reality. Given a bare eight years of by no means always free action, he could not be expected to bring all the matters tackled to a conclusion, especially as the primary tasks of creating the unitary state/church of England and seeing to the transfer of monastic property necessarily absorbed an...

Scottish Confession

Scottish Confession   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
2,878 words

...future generations, and establish good order in the church. In its sacramental teaching on baptism and the Lord's Supper, “which alone were instituted by the Lord Jesus and commanded to be used,” the confession, following Calvin, rejected the idea of the sacraments as “naked and bare signs,” for they offered what they signified. They distinguished God's people from those outside his league, exercised “the faith of his children,” and sealed “in their hearts the assurance of his promise, and of that most blessed union” of the elect with Christ. In baptism (which...

Catechisms

Catechisms   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
5,199 words

...were met with substantial indifference, boredom, and even resistance. Catechesis had to be made mandatory: some form of coercion was necessary. Moreover, the simplest and shortest catechisms were the most successful: most of the faithful were unwilling to learn more than the bare essentials. Clergy of all confessions complained bitterly about the ignorant, immoral, and uncaring laity. By and large, the masses were not buying what the elite had to sell. To their great disappointment, sixteenth-century religious leaders had to relearn what seems to be a...

American Revolution

American Revolution   Reference library

Edward Countryman

The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of the American Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...the fundamental terms of their existence. Historically, there had been no “People of the United States of America.” Now such a people existed, by an act of reasoned, enlightened self-creation. The United States Constitution contains few remnants of the old order. The bare shape of institutions is deceptive. The presidency might resemble the Crown, the United States Senate might resemble the House of Lords, and the House of Representatives might resemble the House of Commons. But the differences are profound. In the British system the Crown, acting...

Protestantism

Protestantism   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
6,930 words

...atoning death; whether Christ's body and blood are physically present in the Supper (this was the pivotal issue); whether obedience to the law of God revealed in the New Testament no less than in the Old—hence the active imitation of Christ—is more central to the Christian life than “bare trust” in the promise of God's mercy; whether the New Testament prescribes a specific form or order of the church's ministry; and whether traditional ritual uses (e.g., liturgical vestments, images, altars, and organs in churches) may be retained as “free things” even if...

Liturgy

Liturgy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
9,109 words

...they were fixed on the first Sundays of March, June, September, and December. However, this does not imply a Zwinglian understanding of the Sacrament. The first Scottish Confession utterly damned “the vanity of those who affirm sacraments to be nothing else but naked and bare signs.” The approved doctrine, set forth in the confession and in the Communion exhortation, was Calvinistic: “We spiritually eate the fleshe of Christ, and drinke his bloude; then we dwell in Christ, and Christ in us; we be one with Christ, and Christ with us.” Anglican Liturgy...

Architecture

Architecture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Reformation

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Religion
Length:
4,073 words

...overnight, as in the case of the duchy of Saxony in 1539 . The fate of the Neue Stift in Halle also may have provided a cautionary model. In 1519 Cardinal Albert of Brandenburg ( 1490–1545 ), archbishop of Mainz and Magdeburg, started transforming an existing though virtually bare Dominican church into one of the most sumptuous structures in all of Europe. It housed 21,384 holy relics and was decorated by Germany's foremost artists. He conceived of the Neue Stift as a glorious reaffirmation of traditional Catholic practices and doctrines, most notably the...

Biography

Biography   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
2,485 words

...came to rely more on real (or professedly real) correspondence, and thus to assert the expansive portrayal of character over the succinct narrative of a life. Correspondence—especially if it included juicy tidbits or slander—was first fully welcomed into biography by Edmund Curll ( 1683–1747 ), a notorious Grub Street bookseller. Curll's forty to fifty hastily assembled literary “lives” consisted of bare facts, poetic extracts, and available correspondence and other documents by, to, or about the subject. The letter as an entertaining yet dignified...

Judaism

Judaism   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
1,753 words

...The rabbi, the Zaddik, is the center of the community and the origin of a lively tradition; each generation wrote histories or sippourim , the first with Dov Baer of Mezbireh and Jacob Joseph of Polonnoye, two of Shem Tov's famous disciples. Polonnoye's Toledot Ya'akov Yosef ( 1780 ) is one of the first theoretical explanations of Hasidism. Judaism was illuminating and equated with life, joy, and access to the divinity. Reason was not the only paradigm to understanding how to be a good Jew and Hasidism can be seen as a kind of...

Caulfeild, James

Caulfeild, James (1728–1799)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
732 words

...career laid bare the sectarian limits of the Whig Enlightenment project in Ireland. The Glorious Revolution of 1688–1690 impeded rather than promoted democratic freedoms there. Its “toleration of contempt” was inimical to universal republicanism of the type promoted by the French Revolution. Charlemont's limits were also the limits of the Protestant Irish in the eighteenth century. [See also Aristocracy ; Classicism ; Ireland ; Neoclassicism ; and Revolution .] Craig, Maurice James . The Volunteer Earl: Being the Life and Times of James...

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1712–1778)   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945)
Length:
3,468 words

...nearly in the same self-conscious manner as did Rousseau. Rousseau invited his reader to come to know him intimately—under the skin, as the epigraph to his Confessions (“intùs et in cute”) suggested. Such an understanding required Rousseau to lay bare for his reader his very soul, and all the events of his life, lofty as well as sordid. It has been difficult for any reader, either in Rousseau's time or our own, to forget the references to his abandoning all his five children to orphanages, despite the protestations of his female partner and later wife, ...

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