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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Adam

Adam   Reference library

Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008

...noting that although Jubilees ascribes halakhic import to the life and times of Adam and Eve, it shows little interest in highlighting their glorious state prior to the sin or the sin itself; there is little more than the bare biblical narrative. The sectarian writings from Qumran seem to share this more pedestrian evaluation of Adam and his sin. In the New Testament, in Romans 5.12–21 , Paul uses the Adam-Christ typology to proclaim that, as sin and condemnation came through Adam, life came through Christ. In 1 Cor. 15.45–47 Adam is the ancestor...

Arab conquest

Arab conquest   Reference library

Matthew Edwards, Andrew Marsham, Caroline Goodson, Sergio La Porta, Peter Sarris, Petra Sijpesteijn, Nicola Clarke, Mark Dickens, and Nicola Clarke

The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018

...in CambHistIran IV, 1–56. Arab conquest, Spain Conquest, in 711, of the majority of the Iberian Peninsula by a North African army . Medieval accounts of this conquest were subject to later reworking to such a degree that it is impossible to reconstruct events beyond a bare outline: in 711, a force from North Africa overthrew the Visigothic King Roderic , and shortly thereafter a succession of governors sent from Damascus began using Arabic lead seals (with, alas, minimal information beyond terms related to division of loot) and minting gold ...

Correspondence

Correspondence   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...as regards their food rations, and the economics involved in renting land for the cultivation of emmer wheat and barley. Hekanakhte appears as a miserly individual who is seeking to accumulate fluid capital that could ultimately be used for his burial expenses, according to Baer ( 1963 ). From the second half of the twelfth dynasty come the Semna Dispatches, which were copied on a papyrus roll found in Western Thebes. These letters relate to the movement and activities of Nubians in the vicinity of the western Semna fort in Nubia. Of similar date are...

Wealth

Wealth   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...comfort in the words of the Ramessid sage Amenemope: Better is praise [as] one beloved of people Than wealth in the storehouse; Better is bread with easy mind Than wealth with anxiety. See also Economy , overview article and article on Private Sector; and Social Stratification. Baer, Klaus . An Eleventh Dynasty Farmer's Letters to His Family . Journal of the American Oriental Society 83 (1963), 1–19. A review article that provides translations and considers problems in the interpretation of the correspondence of the early Middle Kingdom mortuary priest,...

Sexuality

Sexuality   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...both the male and female creative principles—just as the solar deity had proceeded alone to create the world. Akhenaten's outward form was adapted to the female (narrow shoulders, broad hips, accentuated breasts): male characteristics were confined to codes of dress, such as his bare upper torso and king's crown. In one case (a colossus from Karnak, now in the Cairo Museum), he is shown without his kilt and with no genitals. In art, the king's subordinates are rendered with similar female contours. A final detail of what can best be termed “unisex” consists in...

Artists and Artisans

Artists and Artisans   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
Length:
3,576 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Early Nineteenth-Dynasty Thebes . Oriens Antiquus 15 (1976), 91–106. Discussion of Dedia's monuments. Roth, Ann Macy . The Practical Economics of Tomb Building in the Old Kingdom: A Visit to the Necropolis in a Carrying Chair. In For his Ka: Essays Offered in Memory of Klaus Baer , edited by David P. Silverman , pp. 227–240. Chicago, 1994. Steinmann, Frank . Untersuchungen zu den in der handwerklichkünstlerischen Produktion beschäftigten Personen und Berufsgruppen des Neuen Reiches . Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 118 (1991),...

Work Force

Work Force   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...of a System of Social Organization . Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilizations, 48. Chicago, 1991. Roth, Ann Macy . The Practical Economics of Tomb Building in the Old Kingdom: A Visit to the Necropolis in a Carrying Chair. In For His Ka: Essays Offered in Memory of Klaus Baer , edited by D. Silverman , pp. 227–240. Chicago, 1994. Simpson, William Kelly . Papyrus Reisner I: The Records of a Building Project in the Reign of Sesostris I . Boston, 1963. Papyrus Reisner II. Accounts of the Dockyard Workshop at This in the in the Reign of Sesostris I....

Sculpture

Sculpture   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
History, Ancient history (non-classical to 500 CE)
Length:
22,183 words
Illustration(s):
1

...identical, over life-size, unpainted white limestone statues of himself enthroned. Two cedarwood statuettes of this same king, also found at el-Lisht and now shared by Cairo and New York, depict the king with a pleasantly round face, large, intelligent eyes, and a perfect physique. Senwosret III and his son Amenemhet III commissioned more statuary than ever before to fulfill complex decorative schemes for their temples. Some were done in nearly identical multiples, like the group of over life-size granodiorite seated statues of a bare-chested Senwosret...

Gender Roles

Gender Roles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...chest and public hair. [See Clothing and Personal Adornment .] Female household servants usually wore the sheath dress, except when performing strenuous duties, such as grinding grain, when they were often shown in a tight, wraparound knee-length skirt that left the torso bare. During the Old and Middle Kingdoms, they often wore a short cap of hair. In banquet scenes of the eighteenth dynasty, older female servants waiting on guests frequently wore the tripartite hairstyle that was similar to the style worn by elite women. Few nonelite figures had...

Beauty

Beauty   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...famous and explicit representation of youth and age in a woman's body is the depiction of the funerals of Nebamun and Ipuky , both of whom married the same woman. Since the two funerals are represented taking place simultaneously, the representations of the widow show her with bared breasts both firm and drooping and with a change in profile to suggest a sagging chin in the older version of the woman. The same almost imperceptible clues may be used to suggest advancing age in the apparently ageless form of the ruler. For example, in studying numerous...

Economy

Economy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...in ancient Egypt. All extant private transactions are concerned with a nonphysical good, that is a right to the income from land, possessed in any way—that is, as a benefit, “donation,” tenure, or long-term lease (Menu 1998a ). Hence, the price of land in ancient Egypt was low (Baer 1962), and represented the transfer of rights allowing for the earning of income. Turin Papyri 2118 and 2120 , dating from the reign of Psamtik I , mention several degrees in the hierarchy of deeded land, characterized by a diversified and remarkably precise terminology. Like...

Clothing and Personal Adornment

Clothing and Personal Adornment   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...archaic dress. From the early Old Kingdom onward, women frequently wore a dress consisting of a rectangle of fabric wrapped once around the body, with an additional halfturn to bring the corner up to be tied with its fellow at the shoulder. This dress may have become the breast-baring garment worn by widows at funerals and by professional mourners. These “mourning dresses” are tied below the breasts and are shown with gray streaks, representing the ashes that mourners smeared on themselves. The single-shouldered wraparound is used as a everyday garment, until...

Race

Race   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...his back, Retreat, he will start attacking. They are not people one respects, They are wretches, craven-hearted. (Lichtheim, 1976, p. 119) The Instructions for Merikare adopt a similar theme: Lo the miserable Asiatic, He is wretched because of the place he's in: Short of water, bare of wood, Its paths are many and painful because of mountains. He does not dwell in one place, Food propels his legs, He fights since the time of Horus, Not conquering nor being conquered, He does not announce the day of combat, Like a thief who darts about a group … The Asiatic is...

First Intermediate Period

First Intermediate Period   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...his son Idi . A common hypothesis is that at least the last of the seventeen (perhaps eighteen) kings should be part of the eighth dynasty, not the ninth. A Memphite and a Herakleopolitan line of successors descend from Pepy II, both of which left very few traces. Therefore, the bare dynastic divisions in the tradition of Manetho are difficult to reconcile with names from the archeological record or from the hieroglyphic king lists; to make them compatible with the divisions of the Turin king list, with its many serious gaps, and to relative chronology has...

Grammar

Grammar   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...it”)—a focusing construction, like its English counterpart. The other large sentence category, the adverbial sentence, is the most versatile of the Egyptian sentence patterns and is widespread in texts of all kinds. In its basic pattern, a nominal or pronominal subject, either bare or preceded by a particle, is followed by an adverbial phrase as predicate: zẖʒ.w ʿʒ , “the scribe is here”; zẖʒ.w m prw=f , “the scribe is in his house.” If the subject is pronominal, an introducing particle is mandatory: mk tw ʿʒ , “Look, you are here.” The adverbials that...

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