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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

South Asian Genealogy

South Asian Genealogy   Quick reference

Abi Husainy

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
3,254 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...procedure in accordance with the Christian Marriage Act 1892 . With the exception of Azad Kashmir, all zones of Pakistan make divorce subject to forms of arbitration. In Azad Kashmir the ‘bare talaq ’, a form of divorce in which a husband can sever a relationship with a triple declaration of the phrase ‘I divorce thee’, still has practitioners. The oral quality of the bare talaq decree may make a paper trail difficult to find. Civil courts can grant Christians a divorce in Pakistan, and copies of a specific case ruling can be obtained from the court. Many...

Women Local and Family Historians

Women Local and Family Historians   Quick reference

Joan Thirsk

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,549 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...and Their Posterity ( 1930 ). Practicalities were characteristically in the forefront of her mind, causing her often to cast ‘a lingering thought after the old family when I move about their kitchen’. Another remarkable example of a pedigree, showing determination to breathe life into bare names, is that of the Tempest family of Broughton, Craven, Yorkshire, by Eleanor Blanche Tempest ( 1873–1928 ). On every large page of the family tree, documents are summarized in minuscule handwriting beside the names (British Library, Add. MS 40670). Women have frequently...

Historic Churches

Historic Churches   Quick reference

David Hey

The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, Local and Family History
Length:
5,420 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...for social purposes. For centuries, the parish church served also as a village hall, a centre of social life, and the administrative centre for much †local government ( see the poor ; chapel‐of‐ease ; churchwardens’ accounts ; parish registers ). The interiors of medieval parish churches were very different in appearance from what they are now. The first impression upon entering would have been of a blaze of colour. Instead of being bare stone, the walls would have been plastered over and decorated with paintings, which were used both for devotional...

Music

Music   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
5,344 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...a good ‘second eleven’. In keeping with gentlemen-amateur traditions, these composers appeared to lack the visionary single-mindedness which activated their continental contemporaries. Though they were no feebler than their immediate predecessors, their limitations were now laid bare by contrast: creative impotence was openly mocked by fecundity throughout Europe. Only such craftsmen as Broadwood, Dodd, and Tubbs, and a few performers, particularly women, were truly fit to join the newly exalted company of musicians [ see *women musicians and composers ]....

Land

Land   Reference library

An Oxford Companion to the Romantic Age

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2009
Subject:
History, modern history (1700 to 1945), Literature
Length:
4,951 words
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

...garden and a grave.’ And though his central focus is on the process of becoming a poet, he voices the links between the expansion of a global empire, presented as a frightening terrain of silent bats and dark scorpions, and a transformed locality left behind, where ‘even the bare-worn common is denied’. In this population movement from the country to the city, and from city to parts foreign, many of the sources for the nostalgic myth of rural England were generated. The intensity of capitalist production in the countryside in Britain precluded the absolute...

penguin

penguin  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Subject:
History
There are seventeen species of this flightless seabird. They belong to the family Spheniscidae, which are almost exclusive to the southern hemisphere. Penguin wings are developed into powerful ...
Evelyn Baring

Evelyn Baring  

(1841–1917).Proconsul. Baring spent the years 1858–72 in the Royal Artillery and then went to India as private secretary to his cousin, Lord Northbrook, the viceroy. In 1877 he began his life's work ...
philosophy

philosophy  

(Greek, love of knowledge or wisdom)The study of the most general and abstract features of the world and categories with which we think: mind, matter, reason, proof, truth, etc. In philosophy, the ...
Huerta, Dolores

Huerta, Dolores (b. 1930)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
816 words

...political movement, and how political engagement can be a path to women's self-determination. [ See also Immigrant Labor and Labor, subentry Unions, Protests, and Strikes .] Bibliography Baer, Barbara L. , and Glenna Matthews . “ ‘You Find a Way': The Women of the Boycott. ” The Nation (23 February 1974): 232–238. Bonilla-Santiago, Gloria . “Dolores Huerta: A Life of Sacrifice for Farm Workers.” In her Breaking Ground and Barriers: Hispanic Women Developing Effective Leadership . San Diego, Calif.: Marin Publications, 1992. Huerta, Dolores . “...

Matto de Turner, Clorinda

Matto de Turner, Clorinda (1852–1909)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
605 words

...nation‐building of their new republic, seeing literature as a means of educating the people to live into a better future. Matto wrote three novels in which she focused on specific types of social ills: Aves sin nido ( 1889 ; English trans., Birds without a Nest ), which laid bare the corruption and collusion between the clergy and local government officials in the mistreatment of the Indian population; Indole (Disposition, 1891 ), which again spoke to the corruption of the clergy; and Herencia (Heritage, 1895 ), which criticized the shallowness and...

Baker, Ella

Baker, Ella (1903–1986)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
571 words

...televised act that led to substantial reforms within the Democratic Party and laid bare the depth of the party's (and country's) unwillingness to share power with the dispossessed. After the 1960s, Baker continued to work for numerous progressive organizations, such as the Puerto Rican Solidarity Committee and the Commission for Social and Racial Justice of the Episcopal Church. At her funeral in 1986 , friends, colleagues, and movement “children” reflecting on her life concluded that, in her work as a bridge-builder, strategist, and organizer, “Ms. Baker”...

Duncan, Isadora

Duncan, Isadora (1877–1927)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
836 words

...1920s, Duncan became more radically politicized. Her connection with the newly established Soviet Union at this time, as well as behavior that flew in the face of America's entrenched Puritan morality—including baring her breast at the end of a performance in Boston—harmed her popularity in the United States. In a death as dramatic as her entire life, Isadora Duncan was killed on 14 September 1927 when the long scarf she was wearing wrapped around the spoke of her car wheel, breaking her neck. Just before stepping into the auto, she had bid her friends...

Eliot, George

Eliot, George (1819–1880)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
866 words

...moral codes of nineteenth-century England. Her novels are often praised as being the prototypes for the modern novel, full of rich detail of English country life and replete with characters whose motivations are laid bare by the author's probing psychological dissections. Middlemarch , her masterpiece, represents the culmination of Eliot's recurring theme: the intelligent girl swept away by life's endless parade of tempting adventures only to be pulled back by Victorian convention and stymied by society's expectations of her gender. Evans received a...

Celibacy

Celibacy   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
3,992 words

...the Buddha's order as women who had taken up the robes. The Buddha refused their request, and his retinue moved on to Vaiśāli. Mahāprajāpatī led the five hundred women to Vaiśāli and had barbers cut their hair; they gave up their fine clothes for ochre‐colored robes. With bare heads, bare feet, and their new robes, Mahāprajāpatī again asked the Buddha if they could join the order. The Buddha again refused, and then Ānanda, his longtime devoted attendant, asked him a third time on Mahāprajāpatī's behalf. The Buddha consented to Ānanda's request and agreed to...

Foot‐binding

Foot‐binding   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
1,567 words
Illustration(s):
1

...this had the effect of distinguishing them from Tuzu, who maintained the nomadic way of life. In general, foot‐binding signified affiliation with the Han imperial order and was most common among women whose labors were confined to domestic crafts and those who dwelled in urban areas or in northern provinces (notably Shanxi , Shannxi , Hebei , Henan , and Shandong ). Conversely, working around water, on boats, or in wet rice fields of South China, which required bare feet, vitiated the point of binding and concealing the feet. Foot-Binding. Northern-style...

Amundsen, Roald

Amundsen, Roald (1872–1928)   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to World Exploration

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
History
Length:
1,380 words
Illustration(s):
3

...out from the drivers. They had carefully examined their sledge-meters, and they all showed the same distance—our Pole by reckoning. The goal was reached, the journey ended. I cannot say—though I know it would sound more effective—that the object of my life was attained. That would be romancing rather too bare-facedly. I had better be honest and admit straight out that I have never known any man to be placed in such a diametrically opposite position to the goal of his desires as I was at that moment. The regions round the North Pole—well, yes, the North Pole...

Pilgrimage

Pilgrimage   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
3,126 words
Illustration(s):
2

...an expression of Jewish unity amid diversity, yet—signifying eventual Orthodox control over the site—a mechitzah was permanently erected in July 1968 . The much larger men's side of the wall accommodates formal group prayer and ritual accoutrements, while the women's side is bare and allows only for quiet private prayer. Since the 1980s the wall has become a lightning rod for tensions between Orthodox and liberal Jews over gender equality issues. Local Pilgrims. In contrast to international pilgrimage, the aim of local pilgrimage is typically to engage...

Gender Roles

Gender Roles   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
2,952 words
Illustration(s):
1

...that modern Western white males could analyze and over which they should claim dominion. It is no accident that the late eighteenth century saw the rise both of invitingly sexualized female anatomical models and of the parallel genre of art statue: “young woman, her breasts bare, her head slightly bowed beneath the veil she is taking off, which bears the inscription ‘Nature unveils herself before Science’” ( Jordanova , p. 54). In the eighteenth century, anticlericalism and revolutionary ideology had allowed women of varying social positions to take...

Deities

Deities   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
6,367 words
Illustration(s):
4

...for example, exhibits both male and female sexual attributes, resulting from the melding of a male deity and a female nymph, and Ardhanari‐Ishvara, a Hindu deity known as “the Lord of both Male and Female,” is described as half man and half woman and is often depicted with a bare torso showing only one female breast. The physical incarnations of goddesses vary in other ways as well. In their anthropomorphized forms they can be nude, seminude, or clothed in dazzling garments; crowned or adorned with specific attributes; clad in a mantle of serpents or a...

Dance

Dance   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2008
Subject:
History
Length:
4,621 words
Illustration(s):
1

...dances such as the bear, the crab, and the turkey trot, included movements that mocked animals. The 1920s flapper era followed, in which women asserted independence in their dress, their public habits, and their dancing—the Charleston, an aerobic dance of swift high kicks and bare rubbery knees, did not require a partner. A woman from the revue circuit, Elida Webb, is credited with introducing the Charleston. The 1920s–1930s also saw dance marathons, in which women danced solo or with a partner. Bystanders often noticed women for their strength and...

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