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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Roman historiography

Roman historiography  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Presentation of the Roman past was firmly rooted in the Roman present. Historians proclaimed a desire to help and inspire contemporary readers in their public life, and the past was often moulded to ...
philosophy

philosophy  

(Greek, love of knowledge or wisdom)The study of the most general and abstract features of the world and categories with which we think: mind, matter, reason, proof, truth, etc. In philosophy, the ...
historiography, Roman

historiography, Roman   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
825 words

... successors (including Ennius , who did much to shape the Roman view of history). Another aspect, as Cicero ruefully observed, was the evocation of traditional Roman annals. Writers may only rarely have consulted the annales maximi themselves, but the texture of such material—bare lists of omens, magistrates, triumphs, etc.—was still familiar. The annalistic structure, organizing material in a year‐by‐year fashion, also became regular. Sallust's War with Catiline and War with Jugurtha abandoned annalistic form and developed the monograph, using these...

historiography, Roman

historiography, Roman   Reference library

Christopher Brendan Reginald Pelling

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
2,055 words

...much to shape the Roman view of history). Another aspect, as Cicero ( De or. 2. 51–3) ruefully observed, was the evocation of traditional Roman annales ( see annals ). Writers may only rarely have consulted the annales maximi themselves, but the texture of such material—bare lists of omens, magistrates, triumphs, etc.—was still familiar; Cato fr. 77 and Sempronius Asellio frs. 1–2 (both ed. Peter) protested at the historical inadequacy of such catalogues, but versions of these lists figured even in the developed genre, usually conferring an aura of...

Archimedes

Archimedes (c.287–212bce)   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
917 words

...scientist of antiquity. The little known about Archimedes’ life comes mostly from his own writings. His father Phidias was an astronomer. Archimedes was probably not an aristocrat, although he associated with Hiero II of Syracuse. He corresponded extensively with astronomers and mathematicians based in Alexandria, but there is no record that he ever left Syracuse. His death in the Roman siege of Syracuse became a famous episode in the Roman conquest and appropriation of Greek culture. From these bare facts legends later arose: that he invented the Archimedes...

Fortune

Fortune   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece and Rome

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,658 words

...power to promote conquest or fecundity may be represented in the lectisternium sculpture of the two Fortunae of Antium: respectively, a warrior virgin with one breast bared to resemble an Amazon, and a fecund matrona . In some versions, where the heads of both Fortunae remain intact, the virgin wears a helmet and the matrona the headdress of a married woman. Alternatively the bare-breasted Amazon may simply represent conquest through marriage, for the transition from virgin to mother is underlined by the serpent symbol of fertility on what is clearly...

historiography, Roman

historiography, Roman   Reference library

Christopher Brendan Reginald Pelling

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,674 words

... Ennius , who did much to shape the Roman view of history). Another aspect, as Cicero ( De or. 2. 51–3) ruefully observed, was the evocation of traditional Roman annales . Writers may only rarely have consulted the annales maximi themselves, but the texture of such material—bare lists of omens, magistrates, triumphs, etc.—was still familiar; Cato fr. 77 and Sempronius Asellio frs. 1–2 (both ed. Peter) protested at the historical inadequacy of such catalogues, but versions of these lists figured even in the developed genre, usually conferring an aura of...

Plotinus

Plotinus   Quick reference

Eric Robertson Dodds and John Myles Dillon

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,320 words

...as a series of concentric circles resulting from the expansion of the One. Each of these circles stands in a relation of timeless dependence to that immediately within it, which is in this sense its ‘cause’; the term describes a logical relationship, not an historical event. Bare Matter is represented by the circumference of the outermost circle: it is the limiting case of reality, the last consequence of the expansion of the One, and so possesses only the ideal existence of a boundary. Between the One and Matter lie three descending grades of reality—the...

Plōtīnus

Plōtīnus   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,168 words

...as a series of concentric circles resulting from the expansion of the One. Each of these circles stands in a relation of timeless dependence to that immediately within it, which is in this sense its ‘cause’; the term describes a logical relationship, not an historical event. Bare Matter is represented by the circumference of the outermost circle: it is the limiting case of reality, the last consequence of the expansion of the One, and so possesses only the ideal existence of a boundary. Between the One and Matter lie three descending grades of reality—the...

Euphronios

Euphronios (c. 520–c. 500bc)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,223 words
Illustration(s):
1

...interest in anatomy. Euphronios ’ paintings generally depict heroic scenes or scenes of Athenian daily life. His depictions of Herakles are especially memorable. Louvre G 103 shows Herakles Wrestling with Antaeus . His right arm is under the giant’s left armpit, his left around his neck, hands gripped together tightly. Euphronios has brilliantly contrasted the hero’s neat hair and beard and tense profile with the giant’s dishevelled hair and beard, bared teeth and helpless frontal pose, probably deliberately juxtaposing Herakles’ straining right foot with...

Plotinus

Plotinus (ad 205–269)   Reference library

Erik Robertson Dodds and John Myles Dillon

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,552 words

...as a series of concentric circles resulting from the expansion of the One. Each of these circles stands in a relation of timeless dependence to that immediately within it, which is in this sense its ‘cause’; the term describes a logical relationship, not an historical event. Bare Matter (ὕλη) is represented by the circumference of the outermost circle: it is the limiting case of reality, the last consequence of the expansion of the One, and so possesses only the ideal existence of a boundary. Between the One and Matter lie three descending grades of...

Exekias

Exekias (c. 540–c. 520bc)   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,693 words
Illustration(s):
2

...). The splendidly dressed pair sit opposite each other intent on the game, with their shields framing the picture. Inscriptions provide their names and the results of their throws (Achilles 4, Ajax 3), but, even without these, it is clear that Achilles will win. Thus, while the bare-headed Ajax hunches forward tensely, gripping his two spears tightly together, Achilles sits up straighter and seems grander in his tall, plumed helmet. The subject was new and Exekias ’ version was copied by his contemporaries and immediate successors. Although Achilles’...

Dionysus

Dionysus   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,210 words

...between Athens and Delphi lies Thebes , the home town of Dionysus and ‘mother city ( metropolis ) of the Bacchants’, from where professional maenads were imported by other cities. In poetry and vase‐painting, Dionysus and his mythical maenads tear apart live animals with their bare hands and eat them raw. But the divinely inflicted madness of myth was not a blueprint for actual rites. Tragedy and comedy incorporate transgressive aspects of Dionysus, but they do so in opposite ways. While comedy re‐enacts the periods of ritual licence associated with many...

Heracles

Heracles   Reference library

Albert Schachter

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,926 words

...the bare bones of the story already in Homer, Il. 14. 323–4). Legends arose early of his epic feats, and they were added to constantly throughout antiquity. These stories may have played a part in the transformation of Heracles from hero (i.e. a deity of mortal origin, who, after death, exercised power over a limited geographical area, his influence residing in his mortal remains) to god (a deity, immortal, whose power is not limited geographically). See hero-cult . Outside the cycle of the Labours (see below), the chief events of Heracles' life were as...

Heracles

Heracles   Reference library

Albert Schachter

The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,703 words
Illustration(s):
1

...twin: the bare bones of the story already in Homer, Il. 14. 323–4). Legends arose early of his epic feats, and they were added to constantly throughout antiquity. These stories may have played a part in the transformation of Heracles from hero (i.e. a deity of mortal origin, who, after death, exercised power over a limited geographical area, his influence residing in his mortal remains) to god (a deity, immortal, whose power is not limited geographically). Outside the cycle of the Labours (see below), the chief events of Heracles’ life were as follows:...

Christianity

Christianity   Quick reference

The Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,164 words

...made their names. It was not, however, until the middle of the 3rd cent. that forceful opposition was sanctioned by central authority but the growing strength of the Church made it less susceptible to intolerance. Throughout the earlier period, several paradoxes had been laid bare, connected with the universal vision of the Church, the analogous breadth of Rome's claims to government, and its desire to tolerate nevertheless a variety of religious beliefs and practices. State and Church faced similar problems: how should one balance universalist demands and...

Terence

Terence   Quick reference

Peter George McArthy Brown

Who's Who in the Classical World

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,031 words

...never used one to tell the spectators about the background to the plot. It has been suggested that he preferred to exploit effects of surprise rather than irony and to involve his audience more directly in the emotions of the characters (most notably in Hecyra , where it is laid bare how women are misunderstood, maligned, and mistreated by men). But the scope for ironic effect varies from play to play; in some cases he includes essential background information in the mouths of the characters at an early stage. It seems more likely that he dispensed with...

Tanagra

Tanagra   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,513 words
Illustration(s):
2

...appear to have been Dionysos and Hermes, whose cult statue was the work of the Athenian sculptor Kalamis; a temple at nearby Soros dedicated to the mother of the gods was excavated in 2002 . The only ancient building in Tanagra readily identifiable today is the theatre, the bare outline of which can be discerned in the south-west sector of the city. To the north, the ruins of the gymnasium have been identified, famous in Pausanias’ time for housing a painting depicting Korinna tying her hair with a ribbon for the victory she won over Pindar at ...

Kos

Kos   Reference library

The Grove Encyclopedia of Classical Art and Architecture

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Art & Architecture, Classical studies
Length:
1,424 words

...sculptures for an altar on the island (Herondas: Mimes , IV.23). Fragments of it perhaps survive (Istanbul, Archaeol. Mus.), while a group representing Asklepios with his Family ( Moscow , Pushkin Mus. F.A.) may recall another work by the brothers. An over life-size statue of a bearded man with bare right shoulder and weight resting on one leg, his face individualized with small eyes, heavy brows and cropped hair (Kos, Archaeol. Mus.) may be a portrait of Hippokrates, the famous Koan physician ( 469–399 bc ). However, it does not resemble an accepted...

Terence (RE 36)

Terence (RE 36)   Reference library

Peter George McCarthy Brown

The Oxford Classical Dictionary (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Classical studies, History
Length:
1,445 words

...the spectators about the background to the plot ( see argumentum ). It has been suggested that he preferred to exploit effects of surprise rather than irony and to involve his audience more directly in the emotions of the characters (most notably in Hecyra , where it is laid bare how women are misunderstood, maligned, and mistreated by men). But the scope for ironic effect varies from play to play; in some cases he includes essential background information in the mouths of the characters at an early stage. It seems more likely that he dispensed with...

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