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bare life

Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben's concept for life that has been exposed to what he terms the structure of exception that constitutes contemporary biopower. The term originates in ...

Nerab Inscriptions

Nerab Inscriptions   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,518 words

...leaving his left shoulder bare, reaches to his bare feet. He is wearing a round cap and in his left hand he grasps some folded fabric, possibly fringed. The text surrounds his head and then continues across the bottom of his robe from the knee down: Sin-zer-ibni, priest of Śaḥr in Nerab, deceased. And this is his image and his sarcophagus (?). Whoever you are, should you carry off (?) this image and the sarcophagus (?) from its place, may Śaḥr and Shamash and Nikkal and Nusk tear out your name and your place from life, and may they kill you with a nasty...

Pools

Pools   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
950 words

...An impermeable material was inserted between the stones for reinforcement and to ensure against seepage. A thick layer of plaster applied to the walls after their construction prevented percolation of the water; plaster was also applied to a pool's floor, which often was smooth, bare rock. The corners of the pool were usually curved or formed by two obtuse angles to prevent cracks from developing at weak spots in its perimeter. Many pools were built in low-lying areas, such as riverbeds, whose topography facilitated construction, as well as the drainage of...

Umayyad Caliphate

Umayyad Caliphate   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
4,342 words

....] Bibliography Almagro Basch, Martin , et al. Qusayr' Amra: Residencia y Baños Omeyas en el Desierto de Jordania . Madrid, 1975. Almagro Gorbea, Antonio . El Palacio Omeya de Amman , vol. 1, La arquitectura . Madrid, 1983. Baer, Eva . “Khirbat al- Mafdjar.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam , new ed., vol. 5, pp. 10–17. Leiden, 1960–. Baer, Eva . “Khirbat al- Minya.” In Encyclopaedia of Islam , new ed., vol. 5, p. 17. Leiden, 1960–. Bisheh, Ghazi . “ Excavations at Qaṣr al-Ḥallabat, 1979. ” Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 24 (1980): 69–77....

Demography

Demography   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,767 words

...basket, more area was needed—for vegetables, fruits, legumes, wine, and oil. A certain amount of land also was required for growing fibers for textiles, mostly flax. It is difficult to estimate accurately how much land was needed for these crops, but it seems that 0.4 ha is the bare minimum. Thus, the minimum area necessary to feed one person is one hectare (2.5 acres). Of the 2,600,000 ha (6,500,000 acres) of Western Palestine, only 937,000 ha are cultivable. For purposes of computation and because a certain amount of arable land has deteriorated in the last...

Amathus

Amathus   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
1,755 words

...and the majority of the population was made up of “Eteocypriots.” To the arguments that result from the studies already published one must add the discovery In 1992 , in the west part of the necropolis by the edge of the sea, of a great mass of burials in vases placed on the bare earth. These hundreds of vases, which contain the remains of children or adults, seem to date between the end of Cypro-Geometric and the Cypro-Archaic. This was very probably the Phoenician necropolis of Amathus. In the fifth and fourth centuries, when Cyprus was a part of the...

African Biography and Historiography

African Biography and Historiography   Reference library

Heather Hughes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
11,136 words

...lot of Muslim women). Baba related her story to Smith, who then arranged the study as a life account, starting with Baba’s childhood and adolescence and continuing through her marriages, childbirth, and widowhood. 47 Marcia Wright has used life histories in a similar way, to explore the extent to which an individual woman’s life “can be taken to dramatise or generate hypotheses about elements in the experience of women more generally.” 48 Her aim in focusing on the life of master iron smelter Mzee Stefano Malimbo in Ufipa, Tanzania was, however, to resist...

Film and Video as Historical Sources

Film and Video as Historical Sources   Reference library

Mahir Şaul

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
9,777 words

...social relations took place. In the years following decolonization, the bare look of the offices of local businesses or government services, the spacious but sparsely appointed villas of the post-independence educated elite, the crowded courtyards where humbler urban dwellers rented rooms or apartments, the rustic homes in the villages, locations where common men and women lived their personal dramas, sorrows, and joys, were captured in the low-budget films nearly as they were in daily life. These spaces have been transformed in the time since these movies were...

Madaba

Madaba   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
3,023 words
Illustration(s):
2

...by his ministers and by a servant who holds his mount by the bridle. In a second figurative panel, the goddess Aphrodite, seated on a throne next to Adonis, threatens with her sandal a winged Eros, who is being presented to her by a Grace. A second Eros supports Aphrodite's bare foot, while a third Eros looks on and a fourth is intent on emptying a basket full of flowers representing beans. A second Grace grasps a foot of still another Eros, who takes refuge among the branches of a tree, and a third Grace runs after the sixth Eros. A peasant girl coming...

African Historical Geography, Landscapes, and Environmental Change

African Historical Geography, Landscapes, and Environmental Change   Reference library

Katherine Homewood

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
12,078 words

...“density-dependent,” as they predict that rates of growth or decline are tightly linked to population density at any given point. Equilibrium thinking sees whole ecosystems as progressing through a linear sequence or succession of vegetation stages from the colonization of bare landscapes to the development of a climax vegetation type for local conditions. Generalist species with colonizing strategies give way to slow-maturing, slow-reproducing specialists with limited dispersal abilities, adapted to later successional stages and locked into intricate...

Musical Instruments

Musical Instruments   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,514 words
Illustration(s):
3

...the 'ud , predecessor of the European lute. Zither. The zither type is actually nonexistent in the Near East, and information on this chordophone type, often also called psaltery ( psalteria , from Gk., psalmos , “finger,” because in antiquity their strings were plucked with bare fingers) is scarce and confused. The only known example, also interpreted by some scholars as a xylophone (Wegner, 1950 , p. 36), is a beautiful carving on an ivory pyxis (BM, no. 118179, ninth-eighth century bce ), where as part of a small Phoenician orchestra two persons are...

Carthage

Carthage   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
4,272 words

...Byzantine Carthage than to that of the early empire. For the Punic period, the German excavations at a number of points between the Byrsa hill and the sea revealed the original Punic settlement, going back at least to the first quarter of the eighth century bce ; the French laid bare several blocks of late Punic housing on the Byrsa itself, overlying an earlier industrial quarter, and preserved under later Roman fill; and British and American teams excavated in the area of the Punic ports, backed up by geophysical prospection and underwater exploration along...

Writing and Writing Systems

Writing and Writing Systems   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
5,745 words

...form of the letters. [See Indo-European Languages .] The base form does not, as in the underlying abjad, denote just the consonant; rather, it denotes the consonant plus the vowel a. A diacritic is available to cancel the vowel and indicate that the letter is used for the bare consonant (Richard Salomon, in Daniels and Bright, 1996 , sec. 30). The same method of denoting vowels is found in Ethiopic script, except that a vowelless consonant is denoted by the same symbol as denotes the consonant plus shwa. Continuing the pattern of abjad and alphabet...

Phoenician-Punic

Phoenician-Punic   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
6,025 words
Illustration(s):
1

...in 'PQN, “may I find” ( KAI 50.3). The imperative, participle, and infinitive seem to correspond to Hebrew. However, for the passive participle, Late Punic has the orthography B῾RYK, indicating a qatil form (CEDAC, Carthage, Bulletin 8, 17ss., 1.3; cf. also personal names, Baric, meaning “blessed,” CIL 10686). Particles. Most adverbs and prepositions are Common West Semitic. B-presents the variants 'B-, with the prothetic aleph , and BN-expanded with N before suffix pronouns. With the preposition L-, the third-person suffix singular was only...

North Africa

North Africa   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
7,610 words
Illustration(s):
6

...“discovered” North Africa discovered that it was already occupied. The foundation legends of Carthage, transmitted through classical sources (cf. Justin 18.5 for the fullest account), mention native inhabitants who contested the newcomers' right to settle their land. Beyond the bare fact of their existence, however, little else is known. There is a dearth of direct archaeological data to support generalizations about the society and economy of the native populations of North Africa in the millennium leading up to their first contact with the Iron Age...

Sepphoris

Sepphoris   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
6,809 words
Illustration(s):
7

...within overall geometric designs. One of those panels depicts a rearing centaur; his uplifted arms hold a Greek inscription, “God is [our] Helper.” Near the entrance to the basilical hall a panel features two armed Amazons on horseback; in another panel in the eastern wing, three bare-breasted Amazons are shown dancing. The several Amazon scenes, like the Nile River floor, seem to represent festivities; the water installations and special drainage channels in the building suggest that a harvest water festival, known as the Maiuma, may have been celebrated in...

Sport History and Historiography

Sport History and Historiography   Reference library

Michelle Sikes

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
10,948 words

...century . 12 The Hausa in West Africa practiced dambe , a hand-to-hand combat sport in which the fighter’s dominant fist is wrapped in cloth, while communities in Madagascar and other islands off of the continent’s southeast coast practiced Moraingy , also a striking art, with bare-fisted punches. 13 In common with European movement cultures, many of these indigenous pastimes were about gaining status, identity, and power through games and contests that also served as instruments of cultural association. Many aspects of Western sport would therefore have been...

House

House   Reference library

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2011
Subject:
Archaeology, History
Length:
21,033 words
Illustration(s):
14

...located in parts of some of the houses. Houses varied greatly in size at each site, and every house area excavated has included both large and small houses, houses using more relatively expensive materials (baked brick in the south, stone in the north), and houses using the bare minimum—an indication that there was little segregation of the population according to wealth or status. Not all of these differences reflected wealth distinctions, however. Where textual data can be brought to bear, it appears that the houses with rooms on all sides may have...

Kingdoms of South-Central Africa: Sources, Historiography, and History

Kingdoms of South-Central Africa: Sources, Historiography, and History   Reference library

David M. Gordon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of African Historiography: Methods and Sources

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
History, Regional and National History, Archaeology
Length:
18,486 words
Illustration(s):
10

...grown, threatens the rule of Nkongolo. After Nkongolo attempts to assassinate Kalala, he flees, gathers an army from the realm of his father’s people, and defeats Nkongolo. Kalala Ilunga establishes the Luba kingdom and becomes its first king, the mulopwe . These are but the bare narrative outlines of a story that varies in details according to narrator. Using a version recorded in 1973 from a man of memory belonging to the bambudye society, historian Thomas Reefe identifies twenty-six distinct episodes in the tradition of genesis. 9 Reefe finds these...

philosophy

philosophy  

(Greek, love of knowledge or wisdom)The study of the most general and abstract features of the world and categories with which we think: mind, matter, reason, proof, truth, etc. In philosophy, the ...
Southern Africa, Later Iron Age Societies of

Southern Africa, Later Iron Age Societies of   Reference library

Martin Hall

The Oxford Companion To Archaeology (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Archaeology
Length:
2,483 words

...colonization recorded accounts of variable thoroughness and reliability. There are dangers in reading these ethnographies back into the past, since many of their writers carried with them immense prejudices against Africa’s indigenous communities and since to clothe the rather bare bones of archaeological evidence with rich but intangible cultural trappings may be to smother the past with the present, denying the possibilities for change. The major attempt to integrate the ethnographic and archaeological evidence as a way of reconstructing the “cognitive system”...

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