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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

agrarianism

agrarianism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
36 words

... Agrarian societies are those that combine horticulture and animal husbandry in systems of farming. Agrarianism also refers to the romanticization of the rural farm as the ideal place for family life. See also rural sociology...

Sandinismo

Sandinismo (Spanish)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Gangs

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2019
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology, Law
Length:
113 words

...Front for National Liberation in Nicaragua. It combines Marxism, nationalist, and anti-imperialist ideology and applies it to the view of the country’s social, political, and economic systems. It has focused on poverty, inequality, enfranchising the rural and urban poor, agrarian reform, health care, housing, and reforming the country’s institutions. Gang members in Nicaragua have said that community pride is a form of Sandinismo . One way they express this pride is by fighting similar gangs of youth from other neighbourhoods. Further reading: S. Jensen...

Economics

Economics   Reference library

Anne Goddeeris, Cynthia Shafer-Elliott, Melissa Mueller, Matthew J. Perry, Neil Elliott, Carrie Elaine Duncan, and Agnes Choi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
26,716 words

...early Iron I Age (ca. 1200–1000 b.c.e. ) to a more complicated system under the monarchy in the Iron II period ( 1000–586 b.c.e. ). During the early Iron Age, Israel was predominantly a community-based society with a household-dominant mode of production. Early Israel was agrarian/pastoral and was mostly free of the extraction of surplus goods by a dominating class. With the growth of the monarchy, Israel grew into a native tributary mode, which extracted surplus from households by (1) state taxation and corvée, (2) interest on debt and rental fees by...

Masculinity and Femininity

Masculinity and Femininity   Reference library

Susan E. Haddox, Annette Weissenrieder, Marguerite Johnson, Robert Seesengood, and L. Stephanie Cobb

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
19,158 words

...is another realm in which gender-role differentiation is clear. Typically, women’s work roles center in the household, whereas men’s work roles often extend into the public sphere. Cross-cultural studies, supported by hints in the biblical text, indicate that in pastoral and agrarian situations, both men and women contributed to the work as necessary, whereas in urban settings greater differences in gendered work arose. Genesis, which describes a pastoral context, has more balanced work roles. Daughters can have the task of watering the flocks ( Gen 24 , ...

Social Interaction

Social Interaction   Reference library

Philip Jones, James N. Hoke, Karri L. Whipple, Gary Gilbert, and Kathleen Gallagher Elkins

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
19,803 words

...daughters. Dependents had only patronymics, whereas slaves were identified by their masters’ names ( Bongenaar, 1997 ; Joannès, 2013 ; Jursa, 2010 ; Nielsen, 2010 ; Postgate, 1987 ; Waerzeggers, 2010 ). Growth of Patronage. In first-millennium b.c.e. Babylonia, the agrarian landscape consisted of a variety of fields that owed to the king one or more of the three kinds of military service—bow, horse, or chariot. The actual ownership could be in the hands of major officials, members of the royal family, temples, or small landowners. Except in the...

Race, Class, and Ethnicity

Race, Class, and Ethnicity   Reference library

Herbert Robinson Marbury, Denise Eileen McCoskey, Vassiliki Panoussi, Lynne St. Clair Darden, James K. Aitken, and Gay L. Byron

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
24,382 words

...labels for Polish, Jewish, German, Latino, and African American groups. Although biblical scholars are more likely to use the term “class” than the terms “race” or “sexuality,” its application has been particularly troubling because upward mobility was virtually impossible in agrarian societies ( Lenski, 1984 , p. 290). In the Hebrew Bible, ‘am ha’arets (“people of the land”) may refer to Judahites who were not exiled in 587 b.c.e. and ascended to power and wealth in the absence of the exiled elite after the Babylonian devastation. The term, therefore,...

Same-Sex Relations

Same-Sex Relations   Reference library

David Tabb Stewart, Thomas K. Hubbard, Anthony Corbeill, Lynn R. Huber, David Brodsky, and Valerie Abrahamsen

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
23,413 words

...between persons of the same sex in the early church are best understood in the context of Greco-Roman antiquity, in which relationship mores in general, as well as social conditions and practices, were defined by slavery, social stratification, subsistence living in an agrarian economy, imperialism, and communal values. These conditions are generally in contrast to modern Western values, so any study of ancient same-sex liaisons must take these into consideration. Scholarship has established that the majority of people in the Roman Imperial period...

Family Structures

Family Structures   Reference library

Laurie E. Pearce, Jon L. Berquist, Richard Hawley, Judith P. Hallett, Katherine A. Shaner, Shulamit Valler, and Helen Rhee

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,740 words

...Along with perpetuating the genos , one of the main concerns of the Greek oikos was the preservation of its property, especially its land. The Greek word often used for this is kle¯ros (plural kle¯roi ), meaning “allotment.” Most ancient Greek communities were principally agrarian, and so they fiercely protected their land, on which the financial security of the oikos relied, often engaging in generation-long violent conflicts with neighbors over ownership. The land that an oikos owned was therefore jealously guarded, and was considered important for...

Popular Religion and Magic

Popular Religion and Magic   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Ann Jeffers, Pauline Hanesworth, Nicola Denzey Lewis, Jared C. Calaway, Mika Ahuvia, and Justin Marc Lasser

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
27,199 words

...Carol . “From Household to House of Yahweh: Women’s Religious Culture in Ancient Israel.” In Congress Volume Basel 2001 , edited by A. Lemaire , pp. 277–303. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2002. Meyers, Carol . “Material Remains and Social Relations: Women’s Culture in Agrarian Households of the Iron Age.” In Symbiosis, Symbolism, and the Power of the Past: Canaan, Ancient Israel, and their Neighbors from the Bronze Age through Roman Palaestina , edited by William G. Dever and Seymour Gitin , pp. 425–445. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2003. Meyers...

Religious Participation

Religious Participation   Reference library

Jo-Ann Scurlock, Jo-Ann Scurlock, Susan Ackerman, Lynn Lidonnici, Darja Šterbenc Erker, Alicia D. Myers, Ross S. Kraemer, and Lily Vuong

The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Bible and Gender Studies

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2014
Subject:
Religion, Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
29,647 words

...Reclaiming Female Agency.” In A Feminist Companion to Samuel and Kings , edited by Athalya Brenner , pp. 93–104. The Feminist Companion to the Bible 5. Sheffield, U.K.: Sheffield Academic Press, 1994. Meyers, Carol . “Material Remains and Social Relations: Women’s Culture in Agrarian Households of the Iron Age.” In Symbiosis, Symbolism, and the Power of the Past: Canaan, Ancient Israel, and Their Neighbors from the Late Bronze Age through Roman Palaestina , edited by William G. Dever and Seymour Gitin , pp. 425–44. Winona Lake, Ind.: Eisenbrauns, 2003. ...

horticulture

horticulture   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
30 words

... ( horticultural societies ) Horticulture is the system of production that depends on the cultivation of plants. Horticultural societies are those in which this system predominates. See also agrarianism ; agrarian societies...

subsistence economy

subsistence economy   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
57 words

...economy An agrarian economy based on production for consumption rather than exchange. Such economies are characterized by low levels of production, yielding a surplus capable of meeting little more than the basic necessities of life, and tend to be seen by development agencies as a major constituent of Third World poverty and a cause of...

family, extended

family, extended   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
52 words

...extended This term refers to a family system in which several generations live in one household . Nostalgia for the extended family is based largely on myth, as in Western, non-agrarian societies such households are rare. Conversely, even in conjugal families, wider kinship obligations can be strong. See also family, sociology of...

folk society

folk society   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
49 words

...society An ideal type referring to ‘primitive’ agrarian societies in all historical periods which, it is assumed, have none of the economic or socio-cultural characteristics of ‘modern’ urban-industrial societies. The concept is often criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds and for its ideological bias. See also folk-urban continuum...

Kautsky, Karl

Kautsky, Karl (1854–1938)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
154 words

...Karl ( 1854–1938 ) A German socialist politician and social theorist. His The Agrarian Question (1899) argued that small-scale peasant production was doomed to disappear in the face of capitalist development, and that social democrats should not seek to defend peasant interests , their future lying in proletarianization . For Kautsky, the peasantry embodied the ‘backward’ social characteristics of isolation, tradition, and individualism. He was opposed to revisionism; that is, the electoral politics of Edward Bernstein in the 1900s, and...

oriental despotism

oriental despotism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
354 words

...in relation, not only to China, but also wider Marxist arguments about the Asiatic mode of production . Wittfogel ’s work has been criticized as empirically unsound, inconsistent, ecologically determinist , and implicitly functionalist . However, his characterization of the agrarian state bureaucracy of early hydraulic societies prompted an enormous literature on state formation and class relationships in South-east Asia, and he has also been described as a sophisticated multilinear...

Annales School

Annales School   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
268 words

...study of The Modern World-System , 1974, 1980, and 1989 ). Critics have argued that the Annales School neglected political processes. The Annales approach has similar interdisciplinary concerns to historical materialism , the historical sociology of Max Weber in his The Agrarian Sociology of Ancient Civilisations (1924) , and the figurational sociology of Norbert Elias in The Court Society (1969)...

capitalism

capitalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
930 words

...to either qualitative or quantitative factors. Qualitative classifications show that capital can be accumulated by several different methods. Thus mercantile capitalism is a system of trading for profit, typically in commodities produced by non-capitalist production methods. Agrarian capitalism is exemplified by the activities of the British landowning gentry during the 17th and 19th centuries, who oversaw a transformation from a system of production for subsistence into one of the production of cash crops for the market. Industrial capitalism is...

Industrial Revolution, The

Industrial Revolution, The   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
767 words

...from the latter half of the 18th century to the first half of the 19th century. There is much debate and disagreement over the precise characteristics of the Industrial Revolution, but broadly speaking it defines the transformation of Britain from a predominantly rural and agrarian society to an increasingly urban one based on manufacturing and industry. Although the term always refers to Britain (usually England), which was the first industrial nation, the phrase ‘Second Industrial Revolution’ is sometimes used to refer to the industrialization of other...

nationalism

nationalism   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Sociology (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015
Subject:
Social sciences, Sociology
Length:
1,075 words

...history can be seen as a succession of changing technologies, each of which generates the need for a specific socio-political order, and that nationalism is the style of politics that is best suited to the current (industrial) technology (because industrial societies, unlike agrarian ones, need homogeneous languages and culture in order to work efficiently). According to Gellner, ‘a man without a nation…provokes revulsion’, so where nationalism does not exist it is (as it were) necessary to invent it. In Gellner’s account, emphasis is placed less on...

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