View:

Overview

agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

agrarian parties

agrarian parties   Quick reference

Wyn Grant

A Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics and International Relations (4 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2018
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
294 words

... parties Parties representing farmers have been a significant feature of many Western political systems, but are now declining in importance. As urbanization and industrialization reduce the share of the rural population in the electorate, agrarian parties have found it more difficult to sustain an electoral base, and a number have either faded away, or have converted themselves into parties with a more general electoral appeal. The interests of farmers may be more effectively represented by national farmers’ organizations with close links with the...

agrarian parties

agrarian parties  

Reference type:
Overview Page
Parties representing farmers have been a significant feature of many Western political systems, but are now declining in importance. As urbanization and industrialization reduce the share of the ...
Black, Hugo

Black, Hugo   Reference library

Jeffrey D. Hockett

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
294 words

...that the First Amendment protects virtually all forms of speech and press, including obscenity, libel, and seditious utterances, which must be protected from government censorship. This constitutional absolutism was rooted in his affinity for Populism, the nineteenth-century agrarian movement (especially strong in Alabama ) that emphasized the need to combat government’s tendency to serve powerful interests at the expense of the less fortunate. [ See also Bill of Rights ; Brown v. Board of Education ; Civil Liberties ; Japanese American Internment ; ...

Bryan, William Jennings

Bryan, William Jennings   Reference library

H. Wayne Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
323 words

... won the Democratic Party’s 1896 presidential nomination after delivering his electrifying Cross of Gold speech at the party convention in Chicago . The Populist Party also nominated him, and he ran on a platform endorsing free silver and other reforms. He personified the agrarian values of individualism, equality, and Protestant morality in an urban-industrial era of deepening class and ethnic divisions. His opposition to corporate power mirrored the spirit of discontent pulsing through the nation’s heartland, but he failed to rally the urban working...

American Farm Bureau Federation

American Farm Bureau Federation   Reference library

David E. Hamilton

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
632 words

...by establishing successful insurance, cooperative marketing, and farm supply affiliates. The founders of the AFBF believed that farmers were at a disadvantage in the early twentieth century in a political system increasingly dominated by organized groups. Older forms of agrarian organization such as fraternal orders or third political parties, they argued, were ill suited to represent modern farm interests. The creation in 1914 of the Extension Service spurred the formation of a network of local and state farm associations that were often known as...

Budget, Federal

Budget, Federal   Reference library

Iwan Morgan

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Law, History of Law
Length:
1,715 words

...in war and recession. Reinforcing fiscal responsibility, the Jeffersonian tradition reviled public debt as the anti-Republican harbinger of excessive federal power. High protective tariffs underwrote the longest surplus sequence in fiscal years (FY) 1866 – 1893 . Facing agrarian protest that duties should only have revenue-raising purposes, congressional Republicans expanded federal spending, notably on veterans’ pensions and internal improvements, to reduce the surplus. This practice peaked during the “Billion Dollar Congress” of 1889 – 1891 ....

Petkov, Nikola

Petkov, Nikola (1889)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
177 words

...then went into exile in France. He returned to Bulgaria, where he led the left-wing of the Bulgarian Agrarian National Union. King Boris's regime interned him in 1942 . In September 1944 , after the fall of the monarchy, he became minister without portfolio in the provisional government. In July 1945 he left the government to lead the pro-Western opposition to the Communist takeover in Bulgaria and edited the peasant newspaper, the National Agrarian Banner . After the rigged election which brought the Communists to power in 1946 he attacked Dimitrov ...

Stamboliiski, Petur

Stamboliiski, Petur (1 March 1879)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
223 words

...Radomir , 1 March 1879 ; d. near Slavovitsa , 15 June 1923 ) Bulgarian ; Prime Minister 1919–23 Stamboliiski was born into a wealthy peasant family, and studied agriculture in Germany. After returning to Bulgaria in 1897 he became an agrarian agitator. From 1906 he played a major part in the Bulgarian Agrarian Union. He was imprisoned in 1915 for opposing Bulgaria's entry into the First World War on Germany's side. In 1918 he led a march on Sofia which resulted in King Ferdinand's abdication. He was briefly President of a Bulgarian Republic...

Frei Montalva, Eduardo

Frei Montalva, Eduardo (16 Jan. 1911)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
309 words

...sectors; 250,000 new homes; 56 new hospitals; legal cover for work-related accidents and illness; centres for mothers, neighbourhood associations, and the agrarian reform. In the economic field the Office of National Planning was founded. Chilean Electricity was nationalized. State-controlled telecommunications and television networks were set up. The ‘Chileanization’ of copper and the extensive Agrarian Reform epitomized Frei's ‘Revolution in Liberty’—a programme of extensive social change, nationalism, and economic development often described as...

Cárdenas del Rio, Lázaro

Cárdenas del Rio, Lázaro (21 May 1895)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
608 words

... 1924–8 respectively, and, as a trusted associate, Cárdenas was appointed to important military positions during their presidencies. His first significant elected political experience was as Governor of his home state, Michoacan, in 1928 where he displayed an enthusiasm for agrarian reform, popular education, and the encouragement of peasant organizations. At the national level his patrón , Calles, although no longer President, was still the dominant force in politics and he selected Cárdenas to be the National Revolutionary Party's candidate for the...

Groza, Petru

Groza, Petru (1884)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
213 words

... (b. Becia, Transylvania , 1884 ; d. Bucharest , 7 Jan. 1958 ) Romanian ; premier 1945–52 Groza was a well-off Transylvanian landowner and industrialist who was regarded as one of Romania's finest classical scholars. In 1933 he founded the Ploughman's Front, a radical agrarian organization which drew its support from the Transylvanian peasantry. In 1944 the Ploughman's Front joined the Communist-dominated coalition party, the National Democratic Front (NDF). Groza stood for three policies: land reform; reconciliation with Hungary and Romania's...

Gromyko, Andrei

Gromyko, Andrei (18 July 1909)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
307 words

...July 1989 ) Russian ; Minister of Foreign Affairs 1957–85 Gromyko was born in Belorussia, the son of Russian peasants. He studied economics and agronomy in Minsk and at the Institute of Economics in Moscow and joined the Communist Party in 1931 . Gromyko worked first as an agrarian economist, writing for the journal Voprosy ekonomiki from 1936 to 1939 and joined the diplomatic service which Stalin had just purged and was aided by the patronage of Molotov . After serving for four years as counsellor at the Soviet Embassy in Washington he became...

Arbenz Guzmán, Lt. Col. Jacobo

Arbenz Guzmán, Lt. Col. Jacobo (1913)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
287 words

...Ponce , on 20 October 1944 . Minister of War in the elected government of Juan José Arévalo from December 1944 , Arbenz was elected to succeed Arévalo in 1950 . In 1951 he embarked on a more radical programme of nationalist reforms than those of his predecessor, including agrarian reform, which was passed by Congress in 1952 . This benefited about 100,000 peasants and affected just over 1,000 plantations, including those of the US transnational United Fruit Co. Some 387,000 acres were expropriated from United Fruit and compensation of $1 million was...

Kekkonen, Urho

Kekkonen, Urho (3 Sept. 1900)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
332 words

...in his native township and university in Helsinki. Here he graduated in law in 1926 and took his doctorate in 1936 . From 1927 to 1931 he was a lawyer with a local government federation and 1933–6 with the Ministry of Agriculture. From 1936 to 1956 Kekkonen was an Agrarian (Centre) Party member of parliament and served as Speaker 1948–50 . In 1936–7 he was Minister of Justice, in 1937–9 Minister of the Interior, and in 1944–6 Minister of Justice again. In this latter post Kekkonen helped build bridges with the Soviet Union after the two...

López Arellano, Oswaldo

López Arellano, Oswaldo (30 June 1921)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
363 words

... on 4 December 1972 . The subsequent 1972–5 administration adopted a populist tone and introduced a number of socio-economic reforms which aimed to modernize the country through active state intervention. Among the most controversial measures introduced was a programme of agrarian reform. However, this top-down reformism, fiercely opposed by more conservative political sectors, had lost its original impetus by 1975 . In April 1975 , López Arellano was removed from power by the military high council in the wake of a bribery scandal known as ‘Bananagate’,...

Nagy, Imre

Nagy, Imre (7 June 18961953–5)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
433 words

...he became a Soviet citizen. He returned to Hungary in 1923 to develop the illegal Hungary Communist Party. He was imprisoned in 1927 , but escaped to Austria the next year. From 1930 to 1944 he lived in Moscow, where he studied agriculture and worked for the Institute of Agrarian Sciences. Nagy returned to Hungary in 1944 with the Red Army. In the first post-war coalition government, he was Minister of Agriculture, and was responsible for the implementation of far-reaching land reform, as the great noble estates were split up. In 1946 he was briefly...

Salazar, António de Oliveira

Salazar, António de Oliveira (28 Apr. 1889)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
500 words

...organization, the União Nacional. His authoritarian dictatorship formally lasted until 25 April 1974 , but he was removed from office earlier in September 1968 , after suffering a stroke. In his forty years at the helm, he attempted to preserve the way of life of a largely agrarian population and persecuted the opposition with his political police (PVDE and later PIDE). During the 1940s his dictatorship was sympathetic to Fascism, and his policies changed only slightly in the 1950s and 1960s. Portugal was neutral during the Second World War and was...

Bryan, William Jennings

Bryan, William Jennings (18 Mar. 1860)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
538 words

...as a national political figure when as a little-known former Congressman, he succeeded in capturing the Democratic nomination for the presidency. It was a period of economic depression, exacerbated by an appreciating currency linked to gold, and Bryan passionately articulated agrarian discontent. His famous ‘Cross of Gold’ speech, which ended on the much quoted peroration ‘You shall not press down upon the brow of labour this crown of thorns. You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold’, swept the convention delegates off their feet. Despite a...

Betancur Cuartas, Belisario

Betancur Cuartas, Belisario (4 Feb. 1923)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Political Biography (2 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics
Length:
621 words

...(M-19), and the Popular Liberation Army (EPL) signed a peace agreement. The other guerrilla groups refused to sign and the powerful military establishment were not happy. As part of the agreement the government promised a number of social and political reforms such as an agrarian reform, the direct election of mayors, and guarantees of equality for parties other than the Liberals and the Conservatives. The Liberals and Conservatives had shared power for twenty-five years under the National Front agreement. However, the peace was short-lived. In December...

Korea, Republic of

Korea, Republic of   Reference library

Meredith Woo-Cumings

The Oxford Companion to American Politics

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Politics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,320 words

...turbulence of Korea’s modern politics. In reality, the agrarian bureaucracy of the Yi dynasty (1392– 1910 ), which preceded Korea’s entry into the international system, was not quite as strong as it was believed to be. The state ostensibly dominated the society, but it was in fact the landed aristocratic families that kept the state at bay and perpetuated local power for centuries. This pattern was broken when Japan colonized Korea in 1910 , substituting a brutal but modern state for a decaying agrarian bureaucracy. Korea had suffered some nine hundred...

View: