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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Agrarian Question, The

Agrarian Question, The   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
329 words

... Question, The An ongoing debate about the relationship between peasant agriculture and capitalist economic development. Although the issue was raised by Marx and Engels, the Agrarian Question can best be traced back to Karl Kautsky in a book of that name published in 1899 in Germany. Written in the context of a Europe-wide rural and agrarian crisis and falling farm incomes, Kautsky was concerned with three main problems: what was the impact of capitalism on small-scale or family farming?; how important was agriculture to capitalist development in...

monoculture

monoculture   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...A farming system given over exclusively to a single product. Writing on globalization and agrarian change in the Pacific Islands, Murray (2001) J. Rural Studs 17 lists some disadvantages of monoculture: ‘increasing pollution, soil degradation and ground water depletion; further concentrating economic power, property ownership and social inequalities; and contributing to urbanization as displaced small growers migrate to towns and cities. Moreover, the Tongan economy has been left more vulnerable to global economic fluctuations.’ However,...

industrialization

industrialization   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Current Version:
2015

...The development of manufacturing industry from a predominantly agrarian society. Characteristic features of industrialization include the application of scientific methods to solving problems; mechanization and a factory system; the division of labour; the increased geographical/social mobility of the labour force; and capital deepening ( Atack et al. (2005) J. Econ. Hist. 58, 3 ). These are also features of capitalism , and capitalism is not the same thing as industrialization. ‘Industrialization is widely seen as the most important social...

green revolution

green revolution   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Geography (5 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2015

...to lower food prices globally. Average caloric intake has risen as a result of lower food prices—with corresponding gains in health and life’ ( Evenson and Gollin (2003) Science 300 , 5620 ). ‘In order for an African Green Revolution to happen, it is recommended that the agrarian communities and regions reform their land ownership and land tenure from traditional and/or customary laws, in order to enable the ordinary or poor farmers to access and use the land with ease. The farmers need secure and stable tenancy on the land for them to make the necessary...

Corbridge, Stuart

Corbridge, Stuart (1957)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
56 words

...Stuart ( 1957 – ) A leading development geographer known for his writing on theories of development , on the global debt crisis , and on the geography of money. He also has long-term field experience in rural India looking at agrarian change and modernization . He is a professor at the London School of...

chain migration

chain migration   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
64 words

...migration The process by which the migration of one individual to a new place of settlement leads to the migration of others to the same locale via family or social networks . It is often a characteristic of migration from rural and agrarian regions to cities, and can lead to persons from the same village or district living in the same urban...

Watts, Michael J.

Watts, Michael J. (1951)   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
110 words

...Michael J. ( 1951 – ) An Anglo-American human geographer best known for his work on the political economy of food security, famine, and agrarian change based on field research in northern Nigeria ( Silent Violence 1983 ) and developing the field of political ecology through work on food commodities and industrial agriculture, and also on petrocapitalism in the Niger delta. As a member of the California collective Retort, he co‐wrote Afflicted Powers ( 2005 ), an analysis of military neoliberalism in the wake of the 9/11 attack on the Twin...

agricultural geography

agricultural geography   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
380 words

...( see agro-food systems ). But, insofar as agriculture involves an irreducible natural element, it is likely to be theorized and understood in terms distinct from manufacturing and services. Further reading Goodman, D. and Watts, M. J. (eds.) (1997), Globalising Food: Agrarian Questions and Global Restructuring . Robinson, G. (2004), Geographies of Agriculture . Singh, J. and Dhillon, S. S. (3rd ed. 2004), Agricultural Geography . Whittlesey, D. (1936), ‘Major agricultural regions of the Earth’, Annals of the Association of American...

peasantry

peasantry   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
346 words

...world could be classified as peasants. Because modernity is associated with industrialization and urbanization, it was commonly assumed that the peasantry would disappear over time, swallowed up by larger, capitalist farming enterprises and conditions of waged labour ( see Agrarian Question ). They very often appear as victims of modernity, whether through colonial taxation and labour regimes, or forced collectivization of Soviet agriculture, for example. Although this may be true of Europe ( Berger 1979 ), peasants comprise significant proportions of the...

Agricultural Revolution

Agricultural Revolution   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
343 words

...levels of manufacturing employment. In these two ways, the Agricultural Revolution may have laid the foundations for the Industrial Revolution . See also Green Revolution . Further reading Overton, M. (1996), Agricultural Revolution in England: the Transformation of the Agrarian Economy 1500–1800...

immigration

immigration   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
417 words

...paid work, family reunification, and study in higher education. Immigration is also spatially selective, in that incomers rarely match the distribution of the resident population. Whereas immigrants from the Old World colonizing the New World in the 19th century often settled in agrarian regions, most modern-day immigrants head for cities, especially larger metropolitan areas ( see gateway cities ). When steamships were the main means of travelling between distant countries, immigration was generally an irrevocable act (although there were exceptions). In the...

labour market

labour market   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
739 words

...such that the supply of labour intersects with demand for it. As neoclassical economics would have it, at any one time labourers get what they deserve in terms of jobs, wages, and working conditions. For instance, if there is an over-supply of unskilled farm workers in an agrarian region then many will be under-employed and very low paid, with the rest unemployed and reliant on charity, family, or government aid. Although labour markets can be differentiated according to the kinds of work/jobs involved, the degree of skill required to undertake/fill them,...

political ecology

political ecology   Quick reference

A Dictionary of Human Geography

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Human Geography
Length:
925 words

...referred to the historic loss of control over the means of production and reproduction by peasants in northern Nigeria courtesy of the British. The second referred to peasants’ forced inclusion in a capitalist market economy in which producers had either to sell one or other agrarian commodity in return for money, or else sell their labour power in return for a wage. The third concept referred to the way loss of control over land, natural resources, and/or the conditions prevailing in distant commodity markets rendered many rural inhabitants vulnerable to...

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