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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Yeoman Myth

Yeoman Myth   Reference library

Melvyn Dubofsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the myth to rigorous analysis in his Pulitzer Prize–winning history The Age of Reform ( 1955 ). Hofstadter showed that many, if not all or most, independent farmers were men on the make, eager to turn a profit and quick to sell their land when prices rose. In his reading of agrarian economics and politics, independent farmers acted as sharp businessmen when times were good and crop prices high but retreated to the myth of the virtuous yeoman-citizen when crop prices plummeted and hard times befell them. [ See also Agricultural Workers and Family Farm...

Farm Bureau Federation

Farm Bureau Federation   Reference library

Patrick M. Dixon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Story of the Farm Bureau . Lexington, Mass.: Heath Lexington Books, 1971. Campbell, Christiana McFadyen . The Farm Bureau and the New Deal: A Study of Making of National Farm Policy, 1933–40 . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1962. McConnell, Grant . The Decline of Agrarian Democracy . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1953. Patrick M. Dixon...

Farmers’ Distress and Suicides

Farmers’ Distress and Suicides   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,169 words
Illustration(s):
1

...Distress and Suicides Background The agrarian structure in India has undergone three significant phases of change during the last six decades. First, the land reforms across the country helped to correct some of the land market distortions albeit with diverse results. The issues governing land in the country underwent significant changes and while solving many of the ulcerating problems, generated a few new ones. Reverse and/or hidden tenancy, high density of non-viable holdings, and imperfections in the land market are the prominent fallouts among...

Jawaharlal Nehru

Jawaharlal Nehru   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Current Version:
2012

...manage these public-sector ventures. In tandem, Nehru also tried, ineffectually, to push through land reform, which he believed would serve to increase agricultural production and bring it more in line with the needs of a country that suffered from chronic food shortages. This agrarian strategy was stymied in the provincial state legislatures, and in the early 1960s a new policy was introduced, based on technological inputs to increase productivity—creating the basis of the ‘Green Revolution’ in selected parts of the country. In judging Nehru’s project of...

Sachin Chaudhuri

Sachin Chaudhuri   Reference library

Ashok Mitra

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Current Version:
2012

...relevance: plan models and planning techniques, the relationship between farm size and productivity or between growth and income distribution, facets of rural and urban poverty, the choice of technology, monetory, fiscal and trade policies, problems of education and literacy, agrarian structure and tenurial reforms, population growth and demographic matters, law and civil society, and so on. What equally explains the journal’s rapidly growing influence was the intense care Chaudhuri took to put into shape manuscripts submitted by academic greenhorns. Such...

Ashok Rudra

Ashok Rudra   Reference library

Jean Drèze

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Current Version:
2012

...of direct delivery of welfare services for the needy.’ Agricultural Economics Rudra’s work on agricultural economics drew on the numerous field surveys he conducted in West Bengal and elsewhere. These include Farm Management Studies for the Ministry of Agriculture, a Survey of Agrarian Relations completed in 1975, and village surveys initiated jointly with Pranab Bardhan. Here, as in other fields, Rudra often challenged conventional notions. He was particularly critical of the application of neoclassical economic theory to Indian agriculture and in Indian...

Industrial Growth

Industrial Growth   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012
Subject:
Social sciences, Economics, Regional and Area Studies
Length:
2,262 words
Illustration(s):
1

...two kinds of explanations. Following classical economic percepts, in a large agrarian economy, the size of the industrial sector depends on the size and growth of agricultural surplus (after meeting farmers’ food requirements) and of exports. Since the trade ratios for large economies tend to be small, it is agricultural productivity that mainly determines industrial demand. Further, inadequate public investment in irrigation and power could have restricted the breaking of the agrarian barriers for modernization and augmenting farm productivity ( Chakravarty ...

Tariffs

Tariffs   Reference library

Paul P. Abrahams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,292 words

...some tariffs to protect infant industries from British competition, but most imports traded freely. Political-party competition and the rise of manufacturing in New England as shipping declined produced a high tariff in 1828 , denounced as the “Tariff of Abominations” by agrarians in the South and West who favored a low-tariff policy benefiting U.S. agricultural exports. When Congress passed another high tariff in 1832 , the South Carolina legislature declared both the 1828 and 1832 tariffs null and void in the state, leading to a states’-rights...

Prashanta Chandra Mahalanobis

Prashanta Chandra Mahalanobis   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Current Version:
2012

...in the development process. Indeed, a sluggish agricultural sector could seriously impede the growth process by limiting the supply of wage goods. Mahalanobis probably assumed that agricultural productivity could easily be improved by removing the institutional barriers to agrarian development through land reforms—an assumption that turned out to be wrong given the complex political economy of India. Whatever be the explanation, failure to incorporate an effective way of relieving the wage goods constraint is a major weakness of the Mahalanobis strategy....

Bonded Labour

Bonded Labour   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...change employers under a system where the new employer discharges the worker’s debt to the previous employer and reimposes the arrear of debt on the worker. What are the origins of bonded labour? Historically there has been a strong link between caste and bonded status in the agrarian sphere. Landless households of particular castes, lowest in the caste hierarchy in the Tamil- and Malayalam-speaking regions, were held as servile tied households by the entire community of high-caste landowners in the pre-colonial period and their labour was used for...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Russell R. Menard, Stephanie A. Carpenter, Ginette Aley, David E. Conrad, and Patrick M. Dixon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
7,222 words

...Tobacco to Grain . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1980. Engerman, Stanley L. , and Robert E. Gallman , eds. The Cambridge Economic History of the United States . Vol. 1: The Colonial Era . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Kulikoff, Allan . The Agrarian Origins of American Capitalism . Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992. Lemon, James T. The Best Poor Man's Country: A Geographical Study of Early Southeastern Pennsylvania . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972. McCusker, John J. , and Russell R. Menard...

Gender Inequality

Gender Inequality   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

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Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...needs, work roles, and capabilities, which, in turn, affect women’s economic outcomes. Which form of property is important for economic and social security, however, can differ by context. In agrarian contexts, arable land has a pre-eminent position. In urban and industrialized contexts, housing and financial assets gain prominence. In India, with its vast agrarian population, arable land is still the most valued form of property. It is wealth creating, livelihood sustaining, and status enhancing. For most rural households it provides security against...

Land Rights and Acquisition

Land Rights and Acquisition   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...attached or foreclosed. Further, an individual’s borrowings for illegal or immoral purposes were not binding on the other members of the joint family. So those who lent money were kept on the defensive. This acted as a fetter on the development of new contractual arrangements in agrarian land management and reinforced the continuance of subsistence agriculture for many centuries. However, Hindu law did permit the kartha (head) of a vaishya joint family to pledge its properties in order to raise loans. It also permitted interest collection. The fetters of group...

Slavery and Capitalism

Slavery and Capitalism   Reference library

Melvyn Dubofsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,838 words

... Roll, Jordan, Roll : The World the Slaves Made ( 1974 ) he characterized plantation masters as patricians who practiced a paternalism toward their slaves that was alien to capitalism. No doubt there were masters who behaved as Genovese described them, but they were likely the agrarian counterparts to small businessmen who behaved as capitalists manqué, unable to sell their products for a profit or pay their debts and thus failures. The economics of plantation slavery resembled patterns in the broader national economy. Indeed, for much of the first half of the...

Utopian and Communitarian Movements

Utopian and Communitarian Movements   Reference library

Carl J. Guarneri

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

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Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,649 words

...New Jersey, in 1906 . The anarchist Home Colony in Washington State ( 1896–1921 ) and Ferrer Colony in New Jersey ( 1915–1956 ) emphasized individual rights within a cooperative community. Job Harriman's Llano del Rio colony in California ( 1914–1918 ) espoused socialism, agrarianism, and resistance to established authority. Traditional cloistered Roman Catholic orders, introduced to America by Augustinian monks who reached Philadelphia in the 1790s and perpetuated in the twentieth century by Trappists, Benedictines, and other orders, represented a different...

Welfare Capitalism

Welfare Capitalism   Reference library

Gerald Zahavi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,938 words

...employed large numbers of women, employees viewed as particularly vulnerable and requiring specialized services. By the end of the nineteenth century, an embryonic capitalism had given way to a massive, unbridled, and increasingly impersonal industrial order. Jeffersonian agrarian critics of industrialization found new allies: socialists, trade unionists, Social Gospel ministers, and muckraking journalists. Plagued by strikes, growing public criticism, and the threat of government regulation, several businessmen began experimenting with various corporate...

Economic Development

Economic Development   Reference library

John Majewski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
2,609 words

...improved, farmers produced more grains, dairy products, and other produce for urban centers. With more cash to spend on consumer goods, farm families demanded textiles, shoes, furniture, and other manufactured products. Manufacturers and merchants, responding to the larger agrarian market, increased their output and improved productivity. Firms producing such goods as readymade apparel, hats and caps, and boots and shoes, for example, increased productivity through specialization and greater division of labor. Incremental technological advances—usually the...

Economic Theories and Thought

Economic Theories and Thought   Reference library

Stanley L. Engerman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
2,197 words

...discarding free trade in favor of tariff protection for manufactured goods. The U.S. Constitution and related legislation defined the government's power over monetary and banking issues, immigration, and land distribution. Differences between the Hamiltonians and the more agrarian followers of Thomas Jefferson on economic policy seem minor compared to their general acceptance of Smithian principles about individualism, choice, and markets. Although economic arguments about the path of economic growth and the distribution of income remained central in the...

Sustainable Development

Sustainable Development   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...national accounts to reflect gains and losses in these amenities, social cost–benefit analysis of investment projects, and the analysis of economic instruments like pollution charges and emissions trading for controlling pollution. In a poor country like India, with a large agrarian population, the more practical dimensions of sustainable development have to focus much more on the nexus between poverty, ill health, population growth, and the deterioration of land, water, and biotic resources at the local level. The actual practice of development policy is...

Employment and Poverty

Employment and Poverty   Reference library

The New Oxford Companion to Economics in India (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2012

...What is true across countries is true of different states in India; in 2004–5, 49 per cent of India’s male labour force was in agriculture. In Punjab and Bihar, it was about 38 and 64 per cent, respectively ( Eswaran et al. 2009 ). Two centuries ago, most economies were largely agrarian, with a significant part of their populations engaged in activities closely related to agriculture. What brought about the transformation that shifted their labour forces to industry and services? A self-contained or a closed economy (that is, not trading with other economies)...

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