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agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Yeoman Myth

Yeoman Myth   Reference library

Melvyn Dubofsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...the myth to rigorous analysis in his Pulitzer Prize–winning history The Age of Reform ( 1955 ). Hofstadter showed that many, if not all or most, independent farmers were men on the make, eager to turn a profit and quick to sell their land when prices rose. In his reading of agrarian economics and politics, independent farmers acted as sharp businessmen when times were good and crop prices high but retreated to the myth of the virtuous yeoman-citizen when crop prices plummeted and hard times befell them. [ See also Agricultural Workers and Family Farm...

Farm Bureau Federation

Farm Bureau Federation   Reference library

Patrick M. Dixon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Story of the Farm Bureau . Lexington, Mass.: Heath Lexington Books, 1971. Campbell, Christiana McFadyen . The Farm Bureau and the New Deal: A Study of Making of National Farm Policy, 1933–40 . Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1962. McConnell, Grant . The Decline of Agrarian Democracy . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1953. Patrick M. Dixon...

Tariffs

Tariffs   Reference library

Paul P. Abrahams

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,292 words

...some tariffs to protect infant industries from British competition, but most imports traded freely. Political-party competition and the rise of manufacturing in New England as shipping declined produced a high tariff in 1828 , denounced as the “Tariff of Abominations” by agrarians in the South and West who favored a low-tariff policy benefiting U.S. agricultural exports. When Congress passed another high tariff in 1832 , the South Carolina legislature declared both the 1828 and 1832 tariffs null and void in the state, leading to a states’-rights...

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Russell R. Menard, Stephanie A. Carpenter, Ginette Aley, David E. Conrad, and Patrick M. Dixon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
7,222 words

...Tobacco to Grain . Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1980. Engerman, Stanley L. , and Robert E. Gallman , eds. The Cambridge Economic History of the United States . Vol. 1: The Colonial Era . Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Kulikoff, Allan . The Agrarian Origins of American Capitalism . Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992. Lemon, James T. The Best Poor Man's Country: A Geographical Study of Early Southeastern Pennsylvania . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1972. McCusker, John J. , and Russell R. Menard...

Slavery and Capitalism

Slavery and Capitalism   Reference library

Melvyn Dubofsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,838 words

... Roll, Jordan, Roll : The World the Slaves Made ( 1974 ) he characterized plantation masters as patricians who practiced a paternalism toward their slaves that was alien to capitalism. No doubt there were masters who behaved as Genovese described them, but they were likely the agrarian counterparts to small businessmen who behaved as capitalists manqué, unable to sell their products for a profit or pay their debts and thus failures. The economics of plantation slavery resembled patterns in the broader national economy. Indeed, for much of the first half of the...

Utopian and Communitarian Movements

Utopian and Communitarian Movements   Reference library

Carl J. Guarneri

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,649 words

...New Jersey, in 1906 . The anarchist Home Colony in Washington State ( 1896–1921 ) and Ferrer Colony in New Jersey ( 1915–1956 ) emphasized individual rights within a cooperative community. Job Harriman's Llano del Rio colony in California ( 1914–1918 ) espoused socialism, agrarianism, and resistance to established authority. Traditional cloistered Roman Catholic orders, introduced to America by Augustinian monks who reached Philadelphia in the 1790s and perpetuated in the twentieth century by Trappists, Benedictines, and other orders, represented a different...

Welfare Capitalism

Welfare Capitalism   Reference library

Gerald Zahavi

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,938 words

...employed large numbers of women, employees viewed as particularly vulnerable and requiring specialized services. By the end of the nineteenth century, an embryonic capitalism had given way to a massive, unbridled, and increasingly impersonal industrial order. Jeffersonian agrarian critics of industrialization found new allies: socialists, trade unionists, Social Gospel ministers, and muckraking journalists. Plagued by strikes, growing public criticism, and the threat of government regulation, several businessmen began experimenting with various corporate...

Economic Development

Economic Development   Reference library

John Majewski

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
2,609 words

...improved, farmers produced more grains, dairy products, and other produce for urban centers. With more cash to spend on consumer goods, farm families demanded textiles, shoes, furniture, and other manufactured products. Manufacturers and merchants, responding to the larger agrarian market, increased their output and improved productivity. Firms producing such goods as readymade apparel, hats and caps, and boots and shoes, for example, increased productivity through specialization and greater division of labor. Incremental technological advances—usually the...

Economic Theories and Thought

Economic Theories and Thought   Reference library

Stanley L. Engerman

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
2,197 words

...discarding free trade in favor of tariff protection for manufactured goods. The U.S. Constitution and related legislation defined the government's power over monetary and banking issues, immigration, and land distribution. Differences between the Hamiltonians and the more agrarian followers of Thomas Jefferson on economic policy seem minor compared to their general acceptance of Smithian principles about individualism, choice, and markets. Although economic arguments about the path of economic growth and the distribution of income remained central in the...

Women Workers

Women Workers   Reference library

Lara Vapnek

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
4,867 words

...migrated north of the Ohio River and white immigrant women left domestic labor for work in factories and shops. Novels, advice manuals, and popular prints gave the domestic ideal a national reach, but “home” and “work” bore quite a different relationship to each other in the agrarian antebellum South. White women in the nonslaveholding majority remained predominantly rural and firmly within traditional family divisions of labor. The myth of the southern belle forbade any physical labor for white women of the upper class, but mistresses managed the domestic...

Commons, John Rogers

Commons, John Rogers (1862–1945)   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2010
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management
Length:
2,648 words

...of Joseph Dorfman : ‘few economists were as aware as he of the need to come to grips with the facts of the economic scene if society was to progress’ (Dorfman 1949 : 193). This is a fitting legacy. Commons's life spanned a period of dramatic change in the United States, as an agrarian economy was displaced by industrialization. His detailed empirical studies of American society and the economy played a pivotal role in the enactment of social legislation during the first third of the twentieth century. As important as these activities were, his work retains...

Greenback Labor Party

Greenback Labor Party   Reference library

Shelton Stromquist

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Labor Party The Greenback Labor Party represented a brief but potent Gilded Age expression of working-class antimonopoly sentiment. In the aftermath of the depression of 1873 , the formation of the agrarian-based Greenback Party in 1874–1875 , the railroad strikes of 1877 , and the electoral success of local workingmen's parties in industrial states in 1877 , 150 delegates assembled in Toledo, Ohio, in February 1878 to organize the National Party, also known as the Greenback Labor Party. Its labor-oriented platform called for shorter working...

National Farmers Union

National Farmers Union   Reference library

Patrick M. Dixon

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...Farmers’ Educational and Cooperative Union, more commonly known as the National Farmers Union (NFU). The NFU ultimately became America's second-largest farm organization, distinguishing itself from the numerically larger Farm Bureau Federation through its brand of popular agrarianism and its representation of the interests of family farmers. Though consistently seen as a movement of the left and the torch carrier for the rural populism that had grown to prominence in the nineteenth century, the NFU espoused positions that presented a curious fusion of reactionism...

Granger Movement and Laws

Granger Movement and Laws   Reference library

Roy V. Scott

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013

...farmers also claimed that rail carriers discriminated between places and persons, formed illegal business combinations, and gave free passes to politicians and others who could serve the railroads’ interests. As the political power of organized farmers grew in the 1870s, agrarian representatives in the state legislatures, aided by spokesmen for certain business interests, pushed through legislation in Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota that collectively were known as the Granger laws. These laws varied from state to state, but generally they sought...

Knights of Labor

Knights of Labor   Reference library

Robert E. Weir

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
1,252 words

...it had expanded into most major cities. It welcomed as members all except liquor tradesmen, bankers, land speculators, gamblers, Chinese immigrants, and lawyers. By the mid-1880s it contained trade unionists, reformers, small-scale employers, Lassallean socialists, immigrants, agrarian radicals, Greenbackers, unskilled workers, temperance advocates, ministers, women, African Americans, and a smattering of Marxists and anarchists. These diverse groups made volatile comrades, and the KOL experienced numerous internal squabbles, fissures, and splits. The Knights...

Proletarianization

Proletarianization   Reference library

Melvyn Dubofsky

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
2,583 words

...depression, the end of mass immigration, and the Great Depression. For the first time, the number of farms began to decrease, steadily increasing the ranks of prospective proletarians. Without new immigrants, employers sought domestic replacements, including women and displaced agrarians. The Great Depression of the 1930s and a simultaneous drought worsened the rural crisis, forcing farm owner-operators, tenants, and sharecroppers off the land. Millions of farms fell to the mortgage hammer when their owners could no longer pay a mortgage or a tax bill. More...

Railroads

Railroads   Reference library

Colleen A. Dunlavy

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
2,828 words

...forms of competition—resulting eventually in the practice of industries’ capturing the agencies established to regulate them. Western farmers’ fight for railroad regulation and their anger at the railroads’ discriminatory rate-setting policies helped fuel late nineteenth-century agrarian protest and the rise of the Populist Party. In the meantime, however, costly rate wars and regulatory threats galvanized the railroads to organize themselves to control competition. When self-regulation through “pooling” failed, the major lines built large “systems” in the 1870s...

Immigration

Immigration   Reference library

David M. Reimers

The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Business, Labor, and Economic History

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2013
Subject:
Social sciences, Business and Management, Economics
Length:
8,760 words

...and urbanization required workers, skilled and unskilled. Few of the post-1890s immigrants became farmers; they sought out the cities, factory towns, and mining and lumber camps offering immediate wages. With few exceptions, these immigrants bypassed the still largely agrarian South. Southern states did attempt to recruit immigrant Chinese as plantation workers, but they were not successful and eventually turned against the influx of large numbers of immigrants. Southern and eastern European immigrants for the most part entered the labor force as common...

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