View:

Overview

agrarian

Describing an agricultural system which combines horticulture and animals.

Agriculture

Agriculture   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences, Social sciences, Anthropology
Length:
6,017 words
Illustration(s):
1

...testa reflects selection for faster germination. Maize arrived from Mesoamerica much later, approximately 800 years ago. History of Explanation Many societies have stories to explain the beginning of agriculture. Harlan ( 1995 ) presents a series of origin myths from various agrarian societies. Typically, a divine being (Isis in Egypt; Demeter in Greece; a child of the Sun, the first Inca, in the Andes; Oannes in Mesopotamia) brings agriculture to the local, impoverished savages along with a system of laws, religious practices, and the arts of “civilized”...

Human Evolution

Human Evolution   Reference library

Encyclopedia of Evolution

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2005

...modes of production. As a corrective to the unilinear schemes favored by Childe and White, the American anthropologist Julian Steward ( 1902–1972 ) proposed a theory of “multilinear evolution,” according to which certain basic types of society, such as the hunting band or the agrarian civilization, tend to develop in similar ways under similar conditions, even though “few concrete aspects of culture will appear among all groups of mankind in a regular sequence.” Within biology, meanwhile, the teleological (and often Lamarckian) theories of evolution that had...

Colobus and Leaf Monkeys

Colobus and Leaf Monkeys   Reference library

The Encyclopedia of Mammals (3 ed.)

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2007
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
9,656 words
Illustration(s):
2

...is infanticide, the killing of dependent infants by conspecifics. Infanticide is not something discussed over polite dinner tables, but it has been widespread even among humans, practiced at some level in the majority of cultures, whether hunter–gatherer, horticulturalist, or agrarian, though apparently less so today than in the past. Indeed, it may have evolutionary implications that extend as far as those of the institution of marriage itself. Descriptions of infanticide in animals date back to the time of the ancient Greeks, but it was only in the 1960s...

halo

halo   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
349 words

...The halo, usually represented as a luminous figure around the head of a god or holy person, appears in the iconography of a number of religious traditions. The indigenous civilizations of Central America depict agrarian gods with golden crowns or halos, suggesting an association of the halo with the sun. This is clearest in the Inca god, Viracocha, who wears a tiara that is also a sun. In other traditions, the connection to light symbolism is much more general, pointing to intellect, knowledge, or enlightenment. Within some Mahayana Buddhist texts, for...

Buddhism and the body

Buddhism and the body   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,006 words

...in public life. He nevertheless rejected worldly privilege, leaving wife and son to fulfil instead the latter option of the fate predicted at his birth. The Buddha began his spiritual career during a time of social change, with urban and artisan classes gradually displacing the agrarian order in which the Brahmanic system was entrenched. A mendicant teacher during what was later termed the ‘Age of Wanderers’, he travelled, meditated, and followed, only to reject, extreme asceticism . At the age of 35, he sat beneath a tree contemplating the mysteries of death...

prostitution

prostitution   Reference library

The Oxford Companion to the Body

Reference type:
Subject Reference
Current Version:
2003
Subject:
Science and technology, Life Sciences
Length:
1,074 words

...Asian sex trades, which form significant portions of the economies of countries such as Thailand. American military installations during the Vietnam War helped begin the sex trades as military officials organized R&R for their soldiers. As the global economy forced previously agrarian cultures to move towards a capitalist, cash-based system, the sex trades boomed as young girls were sold or forced into urban prostitution in order to support families in more rural areas. Currently, it is common for men from First World countries to join tours in East Asian...

View: